Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures (Google eBook)

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CRC Press, Jun 23, 2005 - Technology & Engineering - 328 pages
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Amidst tightening requirements for eliminating CFCs, HCFCs, halons, and HFCs from use in air conditioning and heat pumps, the search began for replacements that are environmentally benign, non-flammable, and similar to the banned refrigerants in system-level behavior. Refrigerant mixtures are increasingly used as working fluids because they demonstrate desirable thermodynamic, feasibility, and safety characteristics.

Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures provides the first comprehensive, single-source treatment of working fluid mixtures and their applications in vapor compression systems. The authors explain in detail the thermodynamics of refrigerant mixtures, which is vastly more complex than that of individual refrigerants, as well as the fundamentals of various refrigeration cycles and methods for improving their efficiency. They also include important discussions on heat transfer and pressure drop correlations, experimental performance measurements and examples of using refrigerants and their mixtures, and critical operational issues such as control issues, refrigerant mixing, and mass fraction shifts.

Assembling reviews of the scattered literature on the subject and reflecting two decades of research by the authors, Vapor Compression Heat Pumps with Refrigerant Mixtures prepares you to design and implement systems that take the best advantage of fluid mixtures, confronting the challenges and grasping the opportunities that they present.

  

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 OVERVIEW OF CURRENT PRODUCTS
4
122 COMMERCIAL AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEMS
5
13 HISTORY OF WORKING FLUIDS
6
14 REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKING FLUIDS
9
15 BACKGROUND OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
10
153 INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
11
REFERENCES
12
5123 Conclusion
170
5132 R13B1R152aTest
171
5134 R143aR124 and R32R124 Test
174
52 ACTUAL SYSTEM TESTS EXPERIENCE
177
5212 Test Unit
181
5213 Refrigerants Investigated
182
5214 Test Procedure
184
5215 Test Results
185

Properties of Working Fluids
17
211 TEMPERATUREMASS FRACTION DIAGRAM
18
212 PRESSURETEMPERATURE DIAGRAM
24
213 PRESSUREENTHALPY DIAGRAM
27
214 TEMPERATUREENTROPY DIAGRAM
42
215 TEMPERATUREENTHALPY DIAGRAM
43
216 PRESSUREMASS FRACTION DIAGRAM
44
22 ANALYTICAL TREATMENT OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
47
222 DEFINITIONS OF CONCENTRATION
48
224 LIQUID MIXING PHENOMENA
49
225 ADIABATIC MIXING OF BINARY MIXTURES
53
226 ISOTHERMAL MIXING OF BINARY MIXTURES
55
227 MIXING OF BINARY MIXTURES WITH HEAT EXCHANGE
56
229 LATENT HEAT OF BINARY MIXTURES
57
2210 CRITICAL POINT OF BINARY MIXTURES
58
23 TERNARY AND MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES
59
231 THERMODYNAMIC DIAGRAMS FOR MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES
60
232 FLAMMABILITY OF MIXTURES
61
REFERENCES
63
Vapor Compression Cycle Fundamentals
65
32 HEAT PUMPS IN THE CONTEXT OF ENERGY CONVERSION
67
33 THE IDEAL VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE
69
331 POWER AND CAPACITY CALCULATIONS
72
34 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CARNOT CYCLE AND VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE
73
35 REALISTIC VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLES
77
36 LORENZ CYCLE
79
37 VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE WITH ZEOTROPIC MIXTURES IN THERMODYNAMIC DIAGRAMS
82
372 PRESSUREENTHALPY DIAGRAM
83
373 TEMPERATUREENTROPY DIAGRAM
85
374 TEMPERATUREMASS FRACTION DIAGRAM
86
38 THE MATCHING OF TEMPERATURE GLIDES
87
39 METHODS FOR COMPARING THE PERFORMANCE OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS
90
310 SIMULATION OF THE VAPOR COMPRESSION CYCLE
93
31012 Compressor Model
104
31013 Expansion Device Model
106
31014 Refrigerant Mixture Properties
109
3102 CYCLE MODELS
110
31022 Binary Mixture Performance Analysis
112
31023 Refrigerant Performance Comparison
115
BICYCLE and Mark V
120
HAC1 and HPCYCLE
124
REFERENCES
129
Methods for Improving the Cycle Efficiency
135
42 THE SUCTION LINE TO LIQUID LINE HEAT EXCHANGER
138
43 THE ECONOMIZER
142
44 THE EXPANDER
145
45 THE THREEPATH EVAPORATOR
146
REFERENCES
147
Experimental Performance Measurements
149
511 MIST BREADBOARD HEAT PUMP I
150
5113 Test Procedure
153
5114 Heat Exchanger Variations
154
5115 Linearity of the Enthalpy vs Temperature Relationship
157
5116 Liquid Precooling in Evaporator
160
5117 Discussion
161
5118 Conclusion
162
512 NIST BREADBOARD HEAT PUMP II
163
5216 Effects of Heat Exchanger Geometry on Mixture Performance
190
522 HEAT PUMP TEST AT NIST
191
5221 R13B1R152aTest
195
5222 R32R134aTest
198
REFERENCES
206
Refrigerant Mixtures in Refrigeration Applications
209
62 DUAL EVAPORATOR REFRIGERATION CYCLE
212
63 LORENZMEUTZNER CYCLE
213
64 MODIFIED LORENZMEUTZNER CYCLE REFRIGERATOR
215
REFERENCES
218
Refrigerant Mixtures in Heat Pump Applications
221
711 ONE ACCUMULATOR CYCLE
222
712 Two ACCUMULATORS CYCLE
223
713 MODIFIED TWO ACCUMULATORS CYCLE
226
714 THREE ACCUMULATORS CYCLE
227
716 MODIFIED CYCLE WITH RECTIFIER
228
717 CYCLE WITH RECTIFIERACCUMULATOR
229
72 R22 REPLACEMENT
230
722 SCREEN OF HFC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES
232
REFERENCES
235
Heat Transfer of Refrigerant Mixtures
237
82 FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
239
83 CORRELATIONS FOR FLOW BOILING HEAT TRANSFER
245
831 SUPERPOSITION MODELS
246
8312 Bennett and Chen Correlation
247
8313 Gungor and Winterton Correlation
248
832 ENHANCEMENT MODELS
249
8322 Schrock and Grossman Correlation
250
8324 Sami Correlation
251
833 ASYMPTOTIC MODELS
252
8333 Bivens and Yokozeki Correlation
253
834 COMPARISON OF CORRELATIONS
254
842 SINGAL CORRELATION
257
843 SAMI CORRELATION
258
845 SOUZA AND PlMENTA CORRELATION
259
86 CORRELATIONS FOR FLOW CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER
264
862 TRAVISS CORRELATION
265
864 DOBSON CORRELATION
266
866 KOYAMA CORRELATION
267
869 COMPARISON OF CORRELATIONS
268
871 KOYAMA CORRELATION
270
872 SAMI CORRELATION
272
REFERENCES
273
Operational Issues
279
92 REFRIGERANT RECOVERY
280
93 CYCLE FLUSHING
281
94 REFRIGERANT MIXING
282
95 REFRIGERANT MASS FRACTION MEASUREMENT
283
96 EVACUATING A SYSTEM
284
97 REFRIGERANT CHARGE
285
98 LEAK CHECKING
287
991 MASS FRACTION SHIFT IN THE CYCLE
289
992 MASS FRACTION SHIFT DUE TO LEAKAGE
294
993 MASS FRACTION SHIFT DURING CONTAINER TRANSFERS
297
Index
299
Copyright

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Page 277 - Prediction of Binary Mixture Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients using Only Equilibrium Data," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 26, No. 7, pp. 965-974. Thome, JR, 1996, "Boiling of New Refrigerants : a State-of-the-art-review,
Page 277 - Experimental Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of a Zeotropic Refrigerant Mixture in Horizontal Tubes," Proceedings of the 1996 International Refrigeration Conference at Purdue, West Lafayette, IN, pp. 133-138. Wattelet. JP, JC Chato, AL Souza and BR Christoffersen, 1994b, "Evaporative Characteristics of R 1 2, R 1 34a, and a Mixture at Low Mass Fluxes.

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