Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765-1954

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Oxford University Press, Aug 28, 2008 - Religion - 344 pages
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Today the Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, India, is not merely a major Hindu religious pilgrimage but the largest religious gathering in the world. In 2001, according to the government of Uttar Pradesh, 30 million pilgrims were drawn to the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Yamuna on the most auspicious day for bathing. In an impressive feat of organization and administration, the first mela of the new millennium was managed to the overwhelming satisfaction of most, with an impressive health and safety record. The loudest complaint had to do with the intrusive presence of the media. Journalists, largely representing foreign media outlets, had swarmed to the mela, intent on broadcasting to a global audience sensational images of naked (or wet sari- clad) Indians taking part in "ancient" religious rituals. Resistance to foreign interference with the mela has roots that go back 200 years. The British colonial state and the colonized had different ideas about what the Kumbh Mela represented: for the former, it was a potentially dangerous gathering that demanded tight regulation and control, but for the latter it was a sacred sphere in which foreign domination and interference were intolerable. In this book, Kama Maclean examines this tension and the manner in which it was negotiated by each side. She asks why and how the colonial state tried to manipulate the mela and, more important, how the mela changed as Indians responded to the colonial power. In recent years, many scholars have emphasized the extent to which the Kumbh Mela has been monopolized by the Hindu nationalist movement. Maclean seeks to situate the history of the Kumbh Mela in Allahabad within a much broader context. She explores the role of a pilgrimage fair like the Kumbh Mela in disseminating ideas, particularly political ones like nationalism and ideas about social reform. She argues that politics conducted in a Hindu idiom are not necessarily Hindu nationalist.
  

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Contents

Introduction
3
Representations of the Kumbh Mela c 17602001
21
Allahabad Fort and the Sangam 17651860
55
The Modern Beginnings of the Ancient Kumbh in Allahabad 18571870
83
Religion as a Contestable Space 18601900
111
Organization Nationalism and Propaganda 19061942
145
The Allahabad Kumbh 1954
191
Conclusion
219
Appendix
225
Glossary
231
Notes
237
Bibliography
309
Index
333
Copyright

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About the author (2008)


Kama Maclean is Lecturer of South Asian and World History at the University of New South Wales, Australia.

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