Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864

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Stanford University Press, 1998 - History - 353 pages
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Beyond the Pass examines the fiscal and ethnic policies that underlay Qing imperial control over Xinjiang, a Central Asian region that now comprises the westernmost sixth of the People's Republic of China. By focusing on a region of the Qing empire beyond the borders of China proper, and by treating the empire not as a Chinese dynasty but in its broader context as an Inner Asian political entity, this innovative study fills a gap in Western-language historiography of late imperial China.

As analysis of the revenue available to Qing garrisons in Xinjiang reveals, imperial control over the region in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries depended upon sizeable yearly subsidies from China. In an effort to satisfy criticism of their expansion into Xinjiang and make the territory pay for itself, the Qing court permitted local authorities great latitude in fiscal matters and encouraged the presence of Han and Chinese Muslim merchants. At the same time, the court recognized the potential for unrest posed by Chinese mercantile penetration of this Muslim, Turkic-speaking area. They consequently attempted, through administrative and legal means, to defend the native Uyghur population against economic depredation. This ethnic policy reflected a conception of the realm that was not Sinocentric, but rather placed the Uyghur on a par with Hah Chinese.

Both this ethnic policy and Xinjiang's place in the realm shifted following a series of invasions from western Turkestan starting in the 1820's. Because of the economic importance of Chinese merchants and the efficacy of merchant militia in Xinjiang, the Qing court revised its policies in their favor, for the first time allowing permanent Hansettlement in the. area. At the same time, the court began to advocate provincehood and the Sinicization of Xinjiang as a resolution to the perennial security problem. These shifts, the author argues, marked the beginning of a reconception of China to include Inner Asian lands and peoples -- a notion that would, by the twentieth century, become a deeply held tenet of Chinese nationalism.

  

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It is not a review but a factual question to the author or publisher. The bibliography of this book mentioned a article by J. Dowson on the travel route of Khwajah Ahmud Shah Nukshbundee Syud published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No.12 (1850): 372-85. How this particular article published in 1850 whereas Khwajah Ahmud Shah Nukshbundee Syud himself started his journey in 1852 for Central Asia?  

Contents

LANDMARKS
32
FINANCING NEW DOMINION
44
The Yili military complex c 1809 78
55
OFFICIAL COMMERCE AND COMMERCIAL TAXATION IN
76
The Kalanggui karun and the route to Kokand
94
Xinjiang Military Deployment 77 Tea and the Beginnings
101
Growth of Commercial Taxation in Urumchi 176377
104
Sancheng Goes Too Far 105 Nayancengs TeaTax Plan 106
109
The raising of the siege at Blackwater Camp 32
164
Jade boulder carved with a scene of jade quarrying Qianlong period
181
Xinjiang Jade Tribute in the Qianlong and Jiaqing Periods
182
Merchants Dealing in Jadestone in Xinjiang and China Proper
188
QING ETHNIC POLICY AND CHINESE MERCHANTS
194
Page from the multilingual gazetteer of the Western Regions Xiyu tongwen zhi
198
Cover illustration from John King Fairbank ed The Chinese World Order
200
Gaozongs vision of the empire midQianlong reign
201

Sources of Official Monetary Revenue in Xinjiang c 1795
111
Chinese mercantile penetration
113
Hami and environs
128
The OpenGuan Policy 114
135
The Ush citadel Fuhua cheng and environs
142
Chinese Shops and Merchants in Xinjiang Cities
148
The Southern March 138 Manchu Cities or Chinese Cities?
149
Trade routes of north bend traders beitaoke and west road traders xiluke
161
TOWARD THE DOMESTICATION OF EMPIRE
232
CHARACTER LIST
255
NOTES
261
Xiexiang Silver Quotas and Shipments to Xinjiang 60
262
BIBLIOGRAPHY
315
INDEX
343
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About the author (1998)

James Millward is associate professor of intersocietal history at the Edmund Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. He specializes in the modern history of China and Inner Asia, including Mongolia and Tibet, as well as Xinjiang. He lives in Washington, D.C., with his wife-a journalist-and two daughters.

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