Absolute Constructions in Early Indo-European
In the past, discussions of absolute constructions (ACs) have been limited by an imprecise understanding of what ACs are. By examining the nature and function of ACs and related constructions in Greek, Latin and Sanskrit, this new study arrives at a clear and simple definition of ACs. Focussing on the earliest attested material in each language, it highlights how AC usage differs between languages and offers explanations for these differences. Identifying the common core shared by all ACs, it suggests a starting-point and way by which they developed into Greek, Latin and Sanskrit. Further historical study reveals how ACs have been conceived of by grammarians, philologists and even Christian missionaries over the last two thousand years and how enduring misconceptions still affect our discussion of them today. All Sanskrit material is annotated in detail, making it accessible for classicists in particular and allowing a better understanding of ACs in Greek and Latin.
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ab urbe condita ablative absolute ablativus absente absolute constructions actually adjectival adjectives adnominal aorist appears argue attendant circumstance attested Avestan chapter Classical Compare dative dawn deﬁne deﬁnition Delbriick 1888 denote difﬁcult discussion e.g. at RV Early Latin employ English example expres expressions of natural ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬁnite subordinate clauses ﬁnite verb ﬁre ﬁrst Flinck-Linkomies formally forms function genitive genitive expression gerundive grammatical Greek head noun Hesiod Homeric IE languages Iliad Indo-European inﬂuenced instrumental interpretation Keydana Latin AA locatival expressions locative look matrix clause meaning nominal expressions nominal phrase obligatory qualiﬁer Odyssey original parallel participle passage perceived Plautus possible prepositions present pronoun question reconstruct refer regular Rigveda sacriﬁce Sanskrit Section seems semantic sentence similar situation spatial speciﬁc subordinate clauses sunrise syncretism syntactic syntax temporal dimension temporal expressions temporal genitive texts translation udyati usage Vedic verbal clause words