Water in the Middle East: Potential for Conflicts and Prospects for Cooperation
Waltina Scheumann, Manuel Schiffler
Springer Science & Business Media, May 5, 1998 - Business & Economics - 190 pages
The fonner Egyptian Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and fonner UN Secre tary General, Butros Butros Ghali stated after the second Gulf War "The next war in the Middle East will not be fought for oil, but for water. " This famous statement has been echoed by many politicians: shortly before be coming president of Turkey, SOleyman Demirel declared that the waters of the Euphrates and Tigris belonged to Turkey, just as oil belongs to the Arabs. Rafael Eytan, at that time and now again Israeli Minister of Agriculture, declared in 1990 in full-page advertisements in the Jerusalem Post that Israel would never cede the West Bank to the Palestinians because Israel's water supply would otherwise be endangered. Finally, Ismail Serageldin, vice president of the World Bank, declared in 1995 that "the wars of the next century will be over water". These statements are typical of the atmosphere reigning in the Middle East and in several other places around the world concerning the issue of international fresh water resources. Whether these perceptions correspond to an actual threat to a nation's water supply or whether they correspond to the official position of states in negotiations often conducted secretly, is an entirely different matter. A closer analysis of the issue of international fresh water resources, as we attempt in this book, admittedly reveals a dangerous potential for conflict over water.
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International Water Law Regulations for Cooperation and the Discussion of the International Water Convention
12 The Contradicting Principles of Sovereignty and Integrity
121 The Helsinki Rules
122 Draft Articles on the Law of the Nonnavigational Uses of International Watercourses
123 Negotiation of the ILC Draft in the Legal Committee of the General Assembly
13 Enforcement of International Law
14 Water Management Environmental Impact Assessment and CostBenefit Analysis
56 Steps Towards a Joint Approach in the Jordan Basin
The Jordan River Basin Prospects for Cooperation Within the Middle East Peace Process?
62 Present Utilization Patterns
63 Comparison of the Hydrostrategic and Economic Positions
64 Water in the Middle East Peace Process
65 Prospects for Further Regional Cooperation
66 Limits of Cooperation
International Water Agreements A Comparative View
22 Analytical Matrix
23 Taking Customary International Law into Account
24 Water Rights of Other Riparian States
25 The Risk of Low Flow Rates
26 Water Quality and Protection of Ecosystems
27 Monitoring and Enforcement of Water Agreements
28 Water Conflicts and Other Political Issues
The Middle East Peace Process Obstacles to Cooperation over Shared Waters
31 Power over Territory and Water
32 Security and Water
34 The Present Standstill of the Peace Process
Transboundary Externalities and Regional Integration
41 International UpstreamDownstream Problems in Nonintegrated Areas
412 The Decisiveness of Governments Perspectives
42 European Integration Has Changed the Internalization Framework
422 Political Economy of Governmental and Private Action in the European Union
43 Loosely Coordinated Governments Along the Euphrates Private Ties Across the Rhine
44 Policy Advice for Solving International Upstream Downstream Problems
Contested Waters Dividing or Sharing?
51 Riparian Conflicts
52 Traditional Solutions
Sharing Instead of Dividing
54 Regional Water Sharing
A Solution for the Jordan Basin?
67 The Role of the International Community
Conflicts on the Euphrates An Analysis of Water and Nonwater Issues
71 Unilateral Development of Irrigated Agriculture
72 A Hypothetical Future Water Deficit
73 The Present Shortage of Funds
Water and Nonwater Issues
75 Principle Controversies and the Water Allocation Procedures
76 Nonnegotiated Issues
762 Low Water Conditions
763 Water Quality
77 Negotiating Positive Impacts
Conflicts over the Nile or Conflicts on the Nile?
81 The Century Water Storage Scheme
83 The Nile Water Agreement of 1959
84 The Ethiopian Unknown
85 The Jonglei Canal
87 Sudans Position
88 Consequences of Climate Change?
810 Expansion of Irrigation in Egypt or Structural Reforms?
811 Nile Water for the Sinai And for Gaza and Israel?
813 Regional Water Interests of the Nile States
Interim Agreement Between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Authority on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip 28 September 1995
Agreement Between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Authority on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area 4 May 1994
Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 26 October 1994
Agreement Between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Republic for the Utilization of the Yarmouk River 3 September 1987
Agreement Between the Republic of the Sudan and the United Arab Republic for the Full Utilization of the Nile Waters 8 November 1959
additional water agreed agricultural allocation Aquifer Article bilateral Commission Committee concerned cooperation costs countries dispute downstream Durth economic Egypt environmental equitable Ethiopia Euphrates existing flow fresh water Gaza Strip governments ground water Helsinki Rules implementation integrated international law International Law Commission international rivers international water international water agreements international watercourse Iraq irrigation Israel Israeli joint management joint water Jordan River Jordan River Basin Jordanian MCM/a ment Middle East multilateral negotiations Nile Basin Nile water Palestinian Authority parties peace process political pollution potential principle problems projects Protocol regional water reservoir Rhine riparian Scheumann Schiffler solution sovereignty Sudan Syria Syria and Iraq technical territory tion tional transboundary Turkey Turkish United Arab Republic United Nations upstream utilization waste water water and sewage water conflicts Water Convention water issue water management water quality water resources water rights water sector water supply West Bank Yarmuk River