Water in the Middle East: Potential for Conflicts and Prospects for Cooperation

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Waltina Scheumann, Manuel Schiffler
Springer Science & Business Media, May 5, 1998 - Business & Economics - 190 pages
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The fonner Egyptian Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and fonner UN Secre tary General, Butros Butros Ghali stated after the second Gulf War "The next war in the Middle East will not be fought for oil, but for water. " This famous statement has been echoed by many politicians: shortly before be coming president of Turkey, SOleyman Demirel declared that the waters of the Euphrates and Tigris belonged to Turkey, just as oil belongs to the Arabs. Rafael Eytan, at that time and now again Israeli Minister of Agriculture, declared in 1990 in full-page advertisements in the Jerusalem Post that Israel would never cede the West Bank to the Palestinians because Israel's water supply would otherwise be endangered. Finally, Ismail Serageldin, vice president of the World Bank, declared in 1995 that "the wars of the next century will be over water". These statements are typical of the atmosphere reigning in the Middle East and in several other places around the world concerning the issue of international fresh water resources. Whether these perceptions correspond to an actual threat to a nation's water supply or whether they correspond to the official position of states in negotiations often conducted secretly, is an entirely different matter. A closer analysis of the issue of international fresh water resources, as we attempt in this book, admittedly reveals a dangerous potential for conflict over water.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
International Water Law Regulations for Cooperation and the Discussion of the International Water Convention
11
12 The Contradicting Principles of Sovereignty and Integrity
14
121 The Helsinki Rules
16
122 Draft Articles on the Law of the Nonnavigational Uses of International Watercourses
18
123 Negotiation of the ILC Draft in the Legal Committee of the General Assembly
21
13 Enforcement of International Law
24
14 Water Management Environmental Impact Assessment and CostBenefit Analysis
26
56 Steps Towards a Joint Approach in the Jordan Basin
85
References
86
The Jordan River Basin Prospects for Cooperation Within the Middle East Peace Process?
91
62 Present Utilization Patterns
94
63 Comparison of the Hydrostrategic and Economic Positions
97
64 Water in the Middle East Peace Process
98
65 Prospects for Further Regional Cooperation
102
66 Limits of Cooperation
107

15 Conclusion
28
References
30
International Water Agreements A Comparative View
31
22 Analytical Matrix
32
23 Taking Customary International Law into Account
33
24 Water Rights of Other Riparian States
34
25 The Risk of Low Flow Rates
36
26 Water Quality and Protection of Ecosystems
37
27 Monitoring and Enforcement of Water Agreements
40
28 Water Conflicts and Other Political Issues
41
29 Recommendations
42
References
44
The Middle East Peace Process Obstacles to Cooperation over Shared Waters
47
31 Power over Territory and Water
48
32 Security and Water
50
34 The Present Standstill of the Peace Process
52
35 Outlook
54
Transboundary Externalities and Regional Integration
57
41 International UpstreamDownstream Problems in Nonintegrated Areas
58
412 The Decisiveness of Governments Perspectives
59
42 European Integration Has Changed the Internalization Framework
60
422 Political Economy of Governmental and Private Action in the European Union
61
43 Loosely Coordinated Governments Along the Euphrates Private Ties Across the Rhine
64
44 Policy Advice for Solving International Upstream Downstream Problems
68
References
69
Contested Waters Dividing or Sharing?
71
51 Riparian Conflicts
72
52 Traditional Solutions
74
Sharing Instead of Dividing
76
54 Regional Water Sharing
79
A Solution for the Jordan Basin?
82
67 The Role of the International Community
110
References
111
Conflicts on the Euphrates An Analysis of Water and Nonwater Issues
113
71 Unilateral Development of Irrigated Agriculture
114
72 A Hypothetical Future Water Deficit
117
73 The Present Shortage of Funds
118
Water and Nonwater Issues
119
75 Principle Controversies and the Water Allocation Procedures
127
76 Nonnegotiated Issues
129
762 Low Water Conditions
130
763 Water Quality
131
77 Negotiating Positive Impacts
132
78 Conclusions
133
References
134
Conflicts over the Nile or Conflicts on the Nile?
137
81 The Century Water Storage Scheme
139
83 The Nile Water Agreement of 1959
140
84 The Ethiopian Unknown
141
85 The Jonglei Canal
143
87 Sudans Position
144
88 Consequences of Climate Change?
146
810 Expansion of Irrigation in Egypt or Structural Reforms?
147
811 Nile Water for the Sinai And for Gaza and Israel?
148
813 Regional Water Interests of the Nile States
149
Interim Agreement Between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Authority on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip 28 September 1995
167
Agreement Between the State of Israel and the Palestinian Authority on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area 4 May 1994
176
Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 26 October 1994
177
Agreement Between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Republic for the Utilization of the Yarmouk River 3 September 1987
181
Agreement Between the Republic of the Sudan and the United Arab Republic for the Full Utilization of the Nile Waters 8 November 1959
186
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