Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training

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Rob Koper, Colin Tattersall
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 18, 2005 - Computers - 412 pages
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E-learning is still in its infancy. This can be seen both in the limited pedagogical quality and lack of portability of e-learning content, and in the lack of user-friendly tools to exploit the opportunities offered by current technologies. To be successful, e-learning must offer effective and attractive courses and programmes to learners, while at the same time providing a pleasant and effective work environment for staff members who have the task to develop course materials, plan the learning processes, provide tutoring, and assess performance.

To overcome these deficiencies, the IMS Global Learning Consortium Inc. released the Learning Design Specification in 2003. With Learning Design it is possible to develop and present advanced, interoperable e-learning courses embracing educational role and game playing methods, problem-based learning, learning community approaches, adaptivity and peer coaching and assessment methods.

In this handbook Koper and Tattersall have put together contributions from members of the "Valkenburg Group", consisting of 33 experts deeply involved in e-learning and more specifically learning design. The result is a rich and lasting source of information for both e-learning course and tool developers, providing information about the specification itself, how to implement it in practice, what tools to use, and what pitfalls to avoid. The book not only reports first experiences, but also goes beyond the current state of the art by looking at future prospects and emerging applications.

  

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Contents

THE SPECIFICATION ARCHITECTURES AND TOOLS
1
An Introduction to Learning Design
3
12 The Knowledge of the Learning Designer
4
What Are They?
5
131 Learning Situation
6
132 Learning Design Method
7
How Are They Derived?
13
142 Rules Derived from Best Practice
15
Collaboration in Learning Design Using PeertoPeer Technologies
203
1122 P2P and Learning Design
205
1123 Challenges for P2P
212
113 Conclusions
213
Designing Adaptive Learning Environments with Learning Design
215
1212 Remainder of this Chapter
216
123 Assumptions
217
1233 Multiple Variants
218

143 Rules Derived from Patterns in Best Practice
16
15 Conclusion
19
The Learning Design Specification
21
23 Who Is the Learning Design Specification for?
22
24 A Reading Guide to the Specification Documents
23
25 Understanding the Learning Design Specification
25
253 Looking Inside the learningdesign element
27
254 Running a Learning Design
28
255 Learning Objects and Learning Services
32
26 Learning Design Levels A B and C
34
261 Level B
35
262 Level C
38
27 Conclusions
40
Architectures to Support Authoring and Content Management with Learning Design
41
321 Constraining the Variety of Possible Learning Designs
42
324 Editing the Presentation of Learning Designs
43
326 Aggregating Learning Designs
44
33 The Valkenburg Group Reference Architecture
45
333 Learning Design Editor
47
335 Materials Repository
48
337 Search Toolkit
49
3310 Runtime Environment
50
341 Constructing an LD Editor
51
35 The Reference Architecture in Context
54
352 ServiceOriented Architecture
55
353 The Open Knowledge Initiative
58
354 IMS Abstract Framework
59
355 JISC eLearning Framework
62
An Architecture for the Delivery of Elearning Courses
63
42 Requirements Analysis
64
43 Design
66
431 Moving from an Abstract Course to Specific Deliveries
67
432 Constraints on Run Creation
69
44 Implementation
70
45 Conclusion
72
An Architecture for Learning Design Engines
75
52 Learning Design Engines as Collections of Finite State Machines
76
53 Populating the Unit of Learning
78
54 Properties
80
55 Event Handling
83
56 Publication
86
57 Personalization
88
58 Conclusions
89
A Reference Implementation of a Learning Design Engine
91
62 Conceptual Overview
92
622 LDEngme
94
63 Technical Overview
103
64 Implementation Strategies
105
65 Summary
108
Learning Design Tools
109
721 Pieces of the Valkenburg Group Reference Architecture Which Do Not Require Special Tools
110
722 User Roles
112
73 A Framework for Situating Learning Design Authoring Tools
114
732 General Purpose vs Specific Purpose Tools
115
74 Design Time Tools
118
742 HigherLevel General Purpose Editors
121
743 Tools Which Are Standards Compliant but Not Standards Oriented
125
744 An Enabling Framework for Editor Development
126
75 Runtime Tools
128
752 Specialized Players
130
76 Repositories
131
77 Tools for Developers
132
772 Compliance Testing
133
DESIGNING ELEARNING COURSES
137
Basic Design Procedures for Elearning Courses
139
82 An Overview of the Five ISO Phases
140
83 The Learning Design Specification
143
84 Designing Instruction with Learning Design
146
841 Analysis
148
843 Development
157
85 Summary and Conclusion
159
86 Acknowledgements
160
An Instructional Engineering Method and Tool for the Design of Units of Learning
161
92 Instructional Engineering Viewpoint on the LD Specification
162
922 Relationship Between Instructional Engineering and the Learning Design Specification
163
93 An Instructional Engineering Method for Learning Design
165
933 MISA Instructional Model
168
94 Graphical Modelling of Learning Designs
173
941 MISAMOT+ as an Educational Modelling Language
174
943 Using an MOT+ Editor
177
95 An LD Case Study
178
952 An MOT+ Representation of the Versailles Case
179
953 Discussion of the Case
183
Integrating Assessment into Elearning Courses
185
an Integral Part of the Design of Learning and Instruction
186
103 Standardisation of Assessments in Learning Design
188
1031 What Is QTI?
190
104 The Four Processes in Assessment
197
105 Conclusion
202
1242 RuleExample vs ExampleRule
219
1243 Variations in Encouragement
220
1244 Other Uses
221
1251 Multiple Rule Interactions
222
1252 Lack of Enforced Ordering
223
1253 ManifestCentred vs ServerCentred
225
126 Conclusion
226
Designing Educational Games
227
133 Referencing Game Activities in Learning Design
228
the Memory Example
232
135 Discussion and Conclusions
235
136 Acknowledgements
237
Designing Learning Networks for Lifelong Learners
239
142 Requirements of a Learning Network
240
143 Formal Representation of a Learning Network
243
144 The Architectural Structure of a Learning Network
246
145 Implementations of a Learning Network
247
1451 The GrooveBased Prototype
248
1452 PHP Nuke and Moodle
251
146 Conclusion
252
How to Integrate Learning Design into Existing Practice
253
152 EML and LD
254
153 The OUNL Case
255
154 How to Get Started
257
155 How to Design
258
156 How to Create
262
157 How to Deliver
264
158 Conclusion and Discussion
266
EXPERIENCE
269
Applying Learning Design to SelfDirected Learning
271
162 Requirements
272
163 Application of Learning Design
274
1634 Extending the Interaction Model
276
164 Realisation
277
1643 Rendering of Pages
279
165 Project Outcomes
280
Applying Learning Design to Supported Open Learning
281
172 Supported Open Learning and Learning Design
283
1722 Course Models
284
1731 Learning Design Applied to a Simple Example
285
1733 Learning Design as a Design Tool
286
1734 Discussion of Learning Design Examples
287
174 Plans for Learning Design at The Open University
289
175 Conclusion
290
Using Learning Design to Support Design and Runtime Adaptation
291
182 Adaptive Elearning Systems and Technologies
293
183 The First Version of aLFanet
295
1831 Authoring Publishing and Delivering LD
296
1832 Adaptation and Agents
298
1833 Current Progress
300
184 Conclusions
301
The Edubox Learning Design Player
303
192 The Historical Development of Edubox
304
193 Edubox 2
306
194 Edubox 3
308
195 Conclusion
310
Delivery of Learning Design the Explor Systems Case
311
202 Explor2 General Presentation
312
203 The Explor Learning Design Information Model
317
204 Integrating the LD Level A Specification in Explor2
319
205 Integrating Level B and C Specifications in Explor 2 or Taking an Epiphyte Approach
321
206 Conclusion Where to Go Next and Further
324
Challenges in the Wider Adoption of Learning Design Two Exploratory Case Studies
327
2121 The Two SCOPE Units Of Learning
328
213 Developing the Units Of Learning
329
214 Reflections on the Development Process
330
2142 Delivery and Evaluation of the Units of Learning
332
215 The Effectiveness of the Solutions Developed
336
216 Conclusions
338
A Learning Design Worked Example
341
223 Running the Scenario in a Player
342
2231 Introduction Learner
343
2232 Enter Initial Thoughts Learner
344
2234 What Do Others Think? Learner
346
2235 Respond To Initial Thoughts Tutor
348
224 Dissecting the XML Code
350
2243 LearningActivities
351
2244 SupportActivities
353
2245 Plays and Acts
354
2246 Environments
355
2247 Conditions
357
2248 Key Resources
358
225 Concluding Remarks
360
226 XML Code
361
Appendix
367
Glossary
387
References
391
Index
405
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 396 - Modeling Units of Study from a Pedagogical Perspective: the Pedagogical Meta-model behind EML.
Page 393 - Learning Objects: Resources For Distance Education Worldwide. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 2 DR (2003) IMS Digital Repositories Specification.
Page 393 - INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON REUSABLE LEARNING OBJECTS: APPLYING LESSONS OF OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING TO LEARNING SYSTEMS DESIGN.
Page 399 - Organic aggregation of knowledge objects in educational systems, Canadian Journal of Learning Technologies [Electronic version], 28 (3). Retrieved June 24, 2005, from http://www.cjlt.ca/content/vo 128. 3/paquette_rosca.html Plaza, J. (1986). Viodegrafia em videotexto. Sao Paulo: Editora HUCITEC. Sims, R. (1995). "Interactivity: a forgotten art?

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About the author (2005)

Rob Koper is Director of R&D Learning Technologies and member of the Management Team of the Educational Technology Expertise Centre (OTEC) of the Open University of The Netherlands. Results: EML (Educational Modelling Language), IMS Learning Design, models for competency based learning, personalised instruction, web-based learning environments, XML based authoring environments (design, editing, content management), pedagogical meta-models and new generative models for building personalised curricula). Leader of new 5 year programme into Self-Organized Learning Networks.

Colin Tattersall studied Computational Science before working on his PhD at the Computer Based Learning Unit at Leeds University. He subsequently moved to The Netherlands to work for the R&D arm of one of the major Dutch telecommunications operators. There, he investigated new technologies in the area of sales and marketing support systems, publishing several articles and participating in technology dissemination and consultancy exercises. In the mid-nineties, he moved into the software industry, working as Product Manager for a company specializing in (XML-based) support systems for knowledge-intensive processes. In mid 2002 he joined The Open University of The Netherlands as an educational technologist, where his responsibilities cover work related to innovation in e-learning and learning technology standardisation.

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