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General Considerations and Principles
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adherent allow aneurysm anteriorly arachnoid arteriovenous malformation base basilar bleeding bone flap bony brain stem burr holes carotid artery carried Cavitron ultrasonic dissector cerebellar artery cerebral artery chiasm circumferentially clamp clip coagulated cottonoid cranial nerves craniotomy cyst decompression dissected free draining veins drill dura is opened dural excision exposed exposure extension extradural falx feeding vessels Figure fissure foramen frontal lobe Gelfoam graft hematoma hemostasis identified inferior injury intracranial involved large tumors laser lateral lesions ligated lobectomy margin medial meningioma midline necessary occipital occluded operation optic canal optic nerve orbital patient pericranium pituitary placed possible posterior fossa posteriorly postoperative proach procedure pterional pterional approach resection retraction retractors rysm self-retaining retractors sella side sphenoid wing subfrontal suction surgeon surgery surgical sutures techniques temporal lobe temporalis muscle tentorium third ventricle tion tissue total removal tumor tumor capsule tumor removal unilateral usually utilized vascular venous visualized watertight