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ancestors animal names animal-named Arunta Arunta totemism blood Bunjil Central Australia Central Tribes ceremonies churinga nanja class names Cockatoo conjecture Crow phratry Dieri Durkheim Eagle Hawk Euahlayi exist exogamous moieties fact father female descent female line Frazer group marriage group names Grub Hawk and Crow hereditary totems Hill-Tout Howitt human hypothesis idea incest inherited institutions J. G. Frazer Kaitish Kamilaroi Kangaroo kinship Kumbo Kurnai Lake Eyre Lizard local group magical societies male descent male line marry maternal matrimonial classes Messrs Mura-Mura myth name-giving animals Native Tribes Northern Tribes objects origin of totemism personal totem phratriac phratry names Piraungaru Pirrauru primitive pristine promiscuous reckoning reincarnation savage Siboko Snipe social organisation Social Origins South South-East Australia south-eastern tribes Spencer and Gillen stone churinga tabu theory Thlinket Tippa Malku totem groups totem kins totem name totemic magic tribal Tribes of South-East Tsimshians Turtle Urabunna woman women
Page 116 - We must first seek for a cause of this belief in the connection of human groups with animals, the idea of which connection must necessarily be prior to the various customs and rules founded on the idea. Mr. Baldwin Spencer remarks, "What gave rise in the first instance to the association of particular men with particular plants and animals it does not seem possible to say.
Page 112 - Therefore, looking far enough back in the Stream of Time, and judging from the Social habits of Man as he now exists, the most probable view is that he aboriginally lived in small communities, each with a single wife, or, if powerful, with several, whom he jealously guarded against all other Men.
Page 191 - Je n'en vois pas la necessity. Secondly, savage tribes 'allow unrestricted licence of intercourse between the sexes under puberty', and thus familiarize him (the savage) 'with sexual unions that are necessarily sterile; from which he may not unnaturally conclude that the intercourse of the sexes has nothing to do with the birth of offspring'.
Page 24 - ... existence of other tribes of the same Siboko as themselves. Things being in this condition, an ancestor-worshipping people has to explain the circumstances by a myth. Being an ancestor-worshipping people, the Bantu explain the circumstance, as they were certain to do, by a myth of ancestral spirits. "Each tribe regarded some particular animal as the one selected by the ghosts of its kindred, and therefore looked upon it as sacred.
Page 116 - Manifestly, if each group woke to the consciousness that it bore the name of a plant or animal, and did not know how it came to bear that name, no more was needed to establish, in the savage mind, the belief in an essential and valuable connection between the human group Emu, and the Emu species of birds, and so on. As Mr. Howitt says, totemism begins in the bearing by human groups of the name of objects.
Page 34 - McLennan concluded, be older than exogamy in all cases ; indeed it is easy to see that exogamy necessarily presupposes the existence of a system of kinship which took no account of degrees but only of participation in a common stock. Such an idea as this could not be conceived by savages in an abstract form ; it must necessarily have had a concrete expression, or rather must have been thought under a concrete and tangible form, and that form seems to have been always supplied by totemism.
Page 113 - ... agree that but one adult male is seen in a band ; when the young male grows up, a contest takes place for mastery, and the strongest, by killing and driving out the others, establishes himself as the head of the community.
Page 117 - Lastly, the lesson which the words in question contain for the student of man is that the Celts, and certain other widely separated Aryans, unless we should rather say the whole Aryan family, believed at one time not only that the name was a part of the man, but that it was that part of him which is termed the soul, the breath of life, or whatever you may choose to define it as being.
Page 131 - H owitt, in his turn, does not approve of my idea, thus stated by him, that "the plant and animal names would be impressed upon each group from without, and some of them would stick, would be stereotyped, and each group would come to answer to its nickname.