The scope of ecology. The ecosystem. Energy in ecological sytems. Biogeochemical cycles. Limiting factors and the physical environment. Population dynamics. Populations in communities. Development and evolution in the ecosystem. The predicament of humankind: futuristics. Brief description of major natural ecosystem types of the biosphere.
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adapted agriculture algae anaerobic animals aquatic atmosphere autotrophic bacteria beneﬁt biological biomass biosphere biotic birds carbon Chapter chemical climate components concentration consumers crop culture curve cycle decomposition deﬁned deﬁnite density desert detritus diagram diversity ecological ecologists ecosys ecosystem energy ﬂow environment environmental example fertile ﬁeld ﬁgure ﬁre ﬁrst ﬁsh food chain food energy forest fossil fuels function grassland grazing growth habitat herbivores heterotrophic human important increase input insects interaction kcal lakes land limiting factors materials metabolism microecosystems microorganisms natural nitrogen nutrients ocean Odum organic matter output oxygen parasites percent phosphorus photosynthesis phytoplankton plankton plants pollution pond population predators primary production radiation rainfall ratio recycling reduced regions respiration saprotrophs seasonal Section sediments shown in Figure soil solar species speciﬁc subsidies Table temperature terrestrial tion trees trophic levels types United vegetation watershed yield zone zooplankton