Community Health Nursing: Caring for Populations
This book represents the lessons learned and the progress made in more than 100 years of community health nursing in the United States. The year 1993 marked the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Henry Street Settlement, the acknowledged beginning of modern American community health nursing. Since then, the work of community health nurses has led to better health for individuals, families, and population groups. In this book, I have tried to distill the wisdom of early pioneers and present-day practitioners to guide and direct future generations of community health nurses.
Locally, nationally, and globally, society is in greater need of community health nursing services than at any time since our beginning. Although expected longevity has increased significantly in the last century, quality of life has not kept pace for large segments of the world's population. Previously controlled communicable diseases are resurfacing and new diseases are emerging to threaten the public's health. Malnutrition is a fact of life for many people. Chronic physical and emotional diseases are taking their toll on the lives of large numbers of people. Substance abuse and societal violence are rampant, and more and more frequently environmental conditions do not support health. All of these are problems that community health nurses can and do help to solve.
Community health nurses must have the depth and breadth of knowledge that allows them to work independently and in conjunction with others to improve the health of the world's populations. In part, this improvement occurs through care provided to individuals and families, but it must occur on a larger scale through care provided to communities and population groups.Community Health Nursing: Caring for Populationsprovides community health nurses with the knowledge needed to provide care at all these levels. This knowledge is theoretically and scientifically sound, yet practical and applicable to society's changing demands. This book has been written to give students a strong, balanced foundation for community health nursing.
Community Health Nursing: Caring for Populationsis written for all students in community health nursing courses and provides a thorough introduction to all aspects of the specialty. The book is designed to prepare nurse generalists who can function in any setting, providing care to individuals, families, communities, and population groups.
Each unit in this fourth edition is introduced by the work of Veneta Masson. Her writing reflects some of the realities of day-to-day community health nursing practice. The following dialogue between nurse and client is excerpted from one of Ms. Masson's poems, "Christmas Eve at Maggie's," and portrays the sometimes differing perspectives of nurse and client. Throughout the text the poetry presents other intimate glimpses of individual clients and the profession for students to ponder.
Guess what today is Maggie.
Why, I reckon . . . Well, praise the Lord!
She fumbles with the stale debris
The overall approach of this book is to convey to nursing students at the beginning of the twenty-first century the excitement and challenge of providing nursing care in the community. As we begin a new era of community health nursing, I believe that well-educated community health nurses can provide a focal point for resolution of the global health problems presented above. Early community health nurses changed the face of society, and we can be a strong force in molding the society of the future.
I am convinced that when the bicentennial anniversary of American community health nursing occurs in 2093, community health nurses will be able to look back on the accomplishments of our second century with as much pride as the first.Organization
This textbook is designed to present general principles of community health nursing and to assist students to apply those principles in practice. It is organized in six units. The first three units address general concepts of community health nursing practice and the last three examine the application of those concepts to specific populations, settings, and community health problems.
Unit Isets the stage for practice by describing the context in which community health nursing occur: Readers are introduced to the concept of populations as recipients of nursing care and to the historical underpinnings and development of community health nursing as an area of specialty practice. Other chapters in this unit address the influences of the health care, political, economic, sociocultural, and environmental contexts that influence the health of populations and the practice of community health nursing.
Unit IIexamines community health nursing as a specialized area of practice, exploring its population focus and the attributes and features that make it unique. Standards for practice and typical roles and functions of community health nurses are also addressed. The second chapter in this unit provides several theoretical perspectives on community health nursing and discusses theoretical models applicable to population groups, as well as individuals and families, as recipients of care.
A unique feature of this textbook is the consistent use of the Dimensions Model of Community Health Nursing to structure the discussion of principles of practice. In Units III through VI, elements of the model are used to examine the processes used in community health nursing practice and the provision of care to selected populations, in specialized settings, and with specific community health problems. A change from the previous edition is the elimination of some redundancy in the use of the model across chapters; however, the model remains as an organizing framework for the chapters in these units, systematizing assessment in terms of the six dimensions of health (addressing relevant biophysical, psychological, physical environmental, sociocultural, behavioral, and health systems considerations) and framing nursing interventions in terms of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities. This consistent approach permits students to readily identify commonalities and differences among processes, populations, settings, and problems.
Unit IIIpresents common processes used in community health nursing. In each chapter, the elements of the Dimensions Model are applied to a specific process used by community health nurses. For example, in Chapter 10, students are acquainted with general principles of epidemiology and then apply those principles in the context of the, model to the process of health promotion for individuals, families, and groups of clients. Considerations in each of the six dimensions of health are examined in light of their influence on health promotion. Other processes examined in this unit include the health education, case management, and change, leadership, and group processes.
Unit IVexamines community health nursing care provided to special population groups. In each chapter, students are assisted to apply principles of care to individuals and families, as well as to these populations as aggregates. For example, in Chapter 16, emphasis is placed on community health nursing care for individual children and their families as well as on strategies for improving the health of children as a population group. Similar approaches are taken to the other population groups addressed in the unit: families, communities, women, men, the elderly, and the homeless.
Unit Vpresents community health nursing practice in specialized settings such as the home, school, work, correctional, and disaster settings. Chapter 22, a new chapter in this edition examines the role of the community health nurse in official and voluntary agencies as specialized settings. The local health department is used as an exemplar of official agencies and parish or faith community nursing is the exemplar for community health nursing practice in a voluntary agency. In each of the chapters in the unit, students are guided in the use of the nursing process in the special practice setting. Consideration is given to factors influencing health in each of the six dimensions of health, and nursing interventions at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention are discussed.
Unit VIfocuses on community health nursing practice related to common population health problems such as communicable diseases, chronic physical and mental health conditions, substance abuse, and societal violence. Again, students are assisted to apply the nursing process to identify factors contributing to problems in each of these areas and in designing relevant nursing interventions at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. Consideration is given to care of individuals and families with these problems as well as to resolving common community health problems at the population level.NEW FEATURES
Each chapter ofCommunity Health Nursing: Caring for Populationsincludes:
Several of the assessment tools contained in the Appendices of previous editions of the textbook, as well as additional tools previously contained in theCommunity Health Nursing Handbook,have been moved to the companion Web site for the fourth edition. This move was made to permit readers to download immediately usable assessment tools as desired. The remaining appendices present the reader with detailed information that supplements content in the chapters in the book.COMPREHENSIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING PACKAGE Companion Web Site
The companion Web site for the fourth edition of the textbook contains a variety of supplemental information and assessment tools that will be of immediate use to readers. The Web site includes the following new features:
TheInstructor's Resource CD-ROMincludes the following features:
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Defining Populations as a Focus for Care
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