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action Agnosticism Ahura Mazda ancestor worship ancient atheism authority Avesta belief Brahmanism Buddhism Chap character Christian civilization conception condition Confucius conscience consciousness Cosmic Philosophy Creator Data of Ethics deity dependence derived desire determine divine doctrine duty elements end of conduct eternal evil evolution existence expressed fact faculty feelings gods happiness Harlez heaven Herbert Spencer human nature Ibid idea immoral implies individual influence intelligence Kant knowledge Lao-tze ligion mankind Max Muller means ment monotheism moral code moral law moral obligation motive Nirvana notion object origin perfect person philosophy pleasure polytheism practical prevailed principle punishment race reach reason recognized relations religion religion and morality retribution reward right and wrong righteousness savage says sense sentiment Shang-ti social society soul Spencer supreme T. W. Rhys Davids Taoism teaching tendency theory things thou tion truth universal order utilitarian Varuna virtue whilst worship
Page 121 - ... nee erit alia lex Romae, alia Athenis, alia nunc, alia posthac, sed et omnes gentes et omni tempore una lex et sempiterna et immutabilis continebit, unusque erit communis quasi magister et imperator omnium deus, ille legis huius inventor, disceptator, lator; cui qui non parebit, ipse se fugiet ac naturam hominis aspernatus hoc ipso luet maximas poenas, etiamsi cetera supplicia, quae putantur, effugerit" (Cicero, De re publica, III.xxii.33).
Page 258 - As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator. In the golden rule of Jesus of Nazareth, we read the complete spirit of the ethics of utility. To do as you would be done by and to love your neighbor as yourself constitute the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality.
Page 263 - Those only are happy (I thought) who have their minds fixed on some object other than their own happiness ; on the happiness of others, on the improvement of mankind, even on some art or pursuit, followed not as a means, but as itself an ideal end.
Page 265 - Few human creatures would consent to be changed into any of the lower animals, for a promise of the fullest allowance of a beast's pleasures ; no intelligent human being would consent to be a fool, no instructed person would be an ignoramus, no person of feeling and conscience would be selfish and base, even though they should be persuaded that the fool, the dunce, or the rascal is better satisfied with his lot than they are with theirs.
Page 256 - ... pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends; and that all desirable things (which are as numerous in the utilitarian as in any other scheme) are desirable either for the pleasure inherent in themselves, or as means to the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of pain.
Page 256 - If I am asked what I mean by difference of quality in pleasures, or what makes one pleasure more valuable than another, merely as a pleasure, except its being greater in amount, there is but one possible answer. Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.
Page 256 - It is quite compatible with the principle of utility to recognize the fact that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others. It would be absurd that, while, in estimating all other things, quality is considered as well as quantity, the estimation of pleasures should be supposed to depend on quantity alone.
Page 256 - But these supplementary explanations do not affect the theory of life on which this theory of morality is grounded — namely, that pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends...