The Gas-engine: A Treatise on the Internal-combustion Engine Using Gas, Gasoline, Kerosene, Alcohol, Or Other Hydrocarbon as Source of Energy (Google eBook)

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Wiley, 1908 - Internal combustion engines - 562 pages
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Contents

Oxygen and Air Required for Combustion of Carbon
21
Air Required for Combustion of Hydrogen
23
Air Required for Combustion of Compounds
24
Combustion of an Analyzed Fuel Combustion Ratio
26
Calorific Power of a Fuel
30
Fuel Calorimeters Mahlers Bomb
33
The Junker Gascalorimeter
35
The Lucke Gascalorimeter
39
Calorific Power of a Compound
40
Computed Increase of Temperature Due to a Combustion
41
Dissociation
43
Natural Gas
44
Producergas
45
Watergas
50
25a Aspirating Producers
55
Coalgas or Illuminatinggas
64
Blastfurnace Gas
65
Tables of Composition and Properties of Gases
71
Liquid Fuel Petroleum
84
Pintsch Oilgas
86
Gasoline
88
Alcohol
90
Products of Combustion of a Gas
97
The Dilution of the Mixture of Gas and Air
98
Gas Analysis Elliots Gasapparatus
101
Analysis of Products of Combustion Orsats Apparatus
102
CHAPTER III
104
The Piston Motor Mean Effective Pressure
105
40a Computed Cylinder Volume Diameter and Stroke
110
Graphical Representation of the Work of a Piston Motor The PV Diagram
113
GayLussacs Law for Air
115
The Laws of Mariotte and GayLussac Combined
116
Absolute Temperature Absolute Zero
117
Total or Intrinsic Energy Available Energy
119
Efficiency Thermal Efficiency
121
47a Mechanical Efficiency
124
47b Combined Mechanical and Thermal Efficiency The Guarantee
126
Expansive Working of Media Compared with Nonexpansive
128
Isothermal Expansion
130
Adiabatic Expansion
131
Aiabatic Work in Terms of Pressures
132
Temperature Change in Adiabatic Expansion
133
ART AGE 53 Other Thermal Lines Isometric Isopiestic Isobars
134
Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and at Constant Volume
136
Effective Specific Heat 1
141
Value of the Exponent v in the Equation for Expansion
147
The Continuous Rotative Motor Using Pressure Impulse or Reaction
151
CHAPTER IV
152
The Cycle of the Steamengine
153
The Carnot Cycle
154
The Cycle of the Internalcombustion Engine
157
The Otto Cycle with Heating at Constant Volume
158
The Brayton Cycle with Heating at Constant Pressure
162
The Diesel Cycle with Heating at Constant Temperature
163
Disadvantages of the Internalcombustion Principle
167
Variations in Cycle
170
CHAPTER V
171
The Nash Engine
174
The Korting Engine
177
The Twocycle Engine
180
Comparison of Types
184
Other Forms of Gasengine 185
185
The Compound Gasengine
187
CHAPTER VI
188
The HornsbyAkroyd Engine
189
The Secor Kerosene Engine
190
AKT FACE 81 The Mietz and Weiss Engine
191
The Diesel Engine The Hirsch Engine
193
The VerplanckLucke Kerosene Engine
195
Comparison of Types
197
CHAPTER VII
198
The Aircooled Bicycle Motor
199
The Aircooled Automobile Motor
201
Variations in the Automobile Motor
203
The Launch Engine
204
Converted Gasengines
205
CHAPTER VIII
207
The Alcoholautomobile Motor The GobronBrillie
208
The Alcohollaunch Engine
209
CHAPTER IX
211
Automatic Mixing by Suction
212
Proportioning by Adjustable Valves
213
Proportioning by Mechanically Operated Valves
214
Proportioning by Volumes of Pump Cylinders
215
Proportioning by Control of the Carbureter
216
Effect ofVariation in the Mixture
217
Alcohol Carburetors Martha Japy Richard Brouhot Marien felde
245
Kerosene Carburetors
247
Some Principles of Design of Carburetors
249
CHAPTER XI
250
Ignition by Internal Flame
251
Ignition by Catalysis
252
Ignition by High Temperature of Compression
255
Ignition by Electrodes and Electric Sparks The Jumpspark System
256
Ignition by Electric Arc Hammerbreak System
260
Dynamo or Magnetoelectrical Igniton General
262
CHAPTER XII
264
Governing by Missing a Charge The Hitormiss Governor
266
Governing by Impoverishing the Charge
267
Governing by Throttling the Exhaust
269
Governing by Advancing the Spark Preigniting the Mixture
272
Governing by Cutting off Admission
273
Governing in the Twocycle System
274
CHAPTER XIII
279
Cooling of Metal by Waterjacket the Steam to be Utilized or Wasted
280
Watercooling of the Piston
282
The Circulation of the Cooling Water and the Amount Required for Cooling
283
CHAPTER XIV
285
Volume of the Combustionchamber
286
Form of the Combustionchamber
292
Backpressure of Exhaustgases
293
Muffling of the Exhaust
294
CHAPTER XV
297
The Starting of the Engine
298
The Stopping of the Engine
301
Restarting after a Stop
302
The Lubrication of the Engine
307
Improper Working of the Engine the Engine Refuses to Start or Work
308
Usual Causes of Failure to Operate
313
Concluding Summary
315
CHAPTER XVI
317
The Indicator for Gasengine Testing
320
FIG PAGB 172 The Apparatus for a Test
321
Fernalds and Luckes Apparatus to Observe Exhaust Temper atures
322
The Observation in a Test
327
The Precautions against Error in a Test
340
The Conclusions from a Test
341
Sources of Loss in Actual Engines as Compared with the Ideal
344
CHAPTER XVII
346
Changes in Value of P when Heat is Added to Air
349
Analysis of Possible Cycles in the Internalcombustion Engine Noncompression Cycles 351
375
Compression Cycle with Isopiestic Heating
389
Compression Cycle with Isothermal Heating
401
Compression Cycle with Heating Process Arbitrary
416
Cycles with Atmospheric Heating
417
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Temperatures before Ex pansion
429
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Temperatures after Ex pansion
432
Deduction from Comparisons of Cycles with Respect to Tem perature in the Various Gycles
434
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Pressures after Addition of Heat before Expansion
436
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Pressures after Expansion
438
Comparison of Mean Effective Pressures in the Various Cycles
440
Comparison of Cycles with Respect to Volumes after Heating and before Expansion
446
Deductions from Comparisons of Cycles with Respect to Volumes
452
Comparison of Cycles witli Respect to Heat Discharged or Ab stracted Work Done Efficiencies
455
General Conclusions from the Analysis of Cycles
463
Formula for Theoretical Mean Effective Pressure Otto Cycle
469
Factors Reducing Computed Mean Effective Pressure Diagram Factor
476
Design of Cylinder Volumes
480
ABT PAOB 203 Volume of the Clearance
481
Velocity through Valves Ports and Passages
483
CHAPTER XVIII
485
Lucke Apparatus for Continuous Combustion of Explosive Mixtures
486
Engines which have Operated with Constantpressure Heating
494
The Brayton Engine
497
Apparatus for Observing Increase in Volume with Constant pressure Heating
499
The Future of the Engine which Uses Constantoressure Heat ing of the Working Medium The Gasturbine
500
CHAPTER XIX
502
Clerks Explosion Experiments
504
Luckes Explosion Experiments
507
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Experiments on Explosive Mixtures
514
Grovers Experiments with Acetylene
518
Grovers Experiments on Effect of Xeutrals in Explosive Mix
523
The Rate of Propagation of Flame
525
The Propagation of an Explosive Wave
526
Concluding Comment
528
CHAPTER XX
529
The Elements of Cost
531
The Fuel Cost and Guarantee
539
CHAPTER XXI
542
Bibliography
545
Appendix Table of Hyperbolic Logarithms
549
Copyright

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Page 461 - ... receives all heat at constant temperature and discharges all at constant temperature. A consideration of the above would seem to warrant the proposition : When all the heat is discharged according to the same law under which it was received then the cycle will have an efficiency independent of everything but the previous compression and will be given by We may remark here that as IV. C is the Carnot Cycle we can state that Cycles II. A and III. have the same efficiency as the Carnot Cycle with...
Page 137 - Since the specific heat of water is taken as the standard and is one, it may be said that the specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat required to raise or lower the temperature of one pound of the substance one degree Fahrenheit.
Page 383 - From A to B. Adiabatic compression from atmospheric pressure. From B to C. Addition of heat isopiestically. From C to D. Adiabatic expansion to a pressure below atmospheric.
Page i - THE GAS-ENGINE. A TREATISE ON THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE USING GAS, GASOLINE, KEROSENE, ALCOHOL, OR OTHER HYDROCARBON AS SOURCE OF ENERGY.
Page 29 - Dalton's law of definite and multiple proportions has been ever since 1808 the corner stone of chemical science, and the atomic theory by which he sought to explain the law has exercised a profound influence upon all modern speculation. The other law, announced by Avogadro in 1811, that, " under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, equal volumes of all gaseous substances, whether elementary or compound, contain the same number of molecules...
Page 333 - FIG. 15 length of the diagram is determined by the lines LM and RW (Fig. 15), and is equal to LR. The area in square inches divided by the length of the diagram in inches, multiplied by the scale of the spring used, will give the mean effective pressure in pounds per square inch. Data Given. A — area diagram, sq. ins. L = length diagram, ins. 8 — scale of spring used. To Find— MEP = mean effective pressure. MEP = -' S Ju Examples. "A" Run No. 6: A = .84 sq. ins. L = 3.04 ins. S — 240 Ibs....
Page 410 - From D to E. Cooling isothermally to atmospheric pressure. From E to A. Cooling at atmospheric pressure.
Page 509 - ... per cent., the dilution varies through but little more than 5 per cent. This is very striking, as will be noted again when the results of increasing dilution by neutral additions is taken up. There can be little doubt that the limits of combustibility is intimately associated with the per cent...
Page 92 - When the temperature at the time of measurement is below 60°, the same correction should be subtracted from the measured density. The corrected density should then be used in the table for finding the true percentage of alcohol. The percentage of alcohol found in a sample is always likely to be greater when determined chemically than when determined by the hydrometer, because the presence of impurities in the way of solids dissolved in the alcohol or as any of the series of higher alcohols tends...

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