## Thermodynamics: an advanced treatment for chemists and physicists |

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absolute activity according activity coefficient adiabatic boiling-point called cell chemical potential components composition consider const constant temperature containing convenient corresponding curve Debye's defined definition degrees of freedom denotes the value dependence derive determined differential eigenfunctions electrical electrode electrolyte electromotive force equation equilibrium condition example experimental data extremely dilute formula free energy freezing-point fugacity gaseous gases Gibbs function Gibbs-Duhem relation given heat capacity heat function ideal dilute solution ideal mixture independent variables integral interface ionic species ions isothermal joule lambda-point liquid phase magnetic Maxwell's relation measurements molality molar entropy molar heat molar quantities mole fraction molecules obtain osmotic coefficient partial molar partial vapour pressure perfect gas principle properties pure liquid pure solvent Raoult's law respect reversible RT log solute species solvent statistical thermodynamics substances Substituting superscript thermal thermodynamic potential vapour pressure virial coefficient volume zero