A History of Commerce (Google eBook)

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1914 - Commerce - 640 pages
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Contents

Rhodes
23
Questions and topics
24
CHAPTER IV
26
Backward condition of the peoples of the West
27
Limited influence of Rome on the commercial development of the West
28
Decline of Roman power and of commerce in the West
29
Questions and topics
30
PART II
31
period after the fall of Rome
32
Difficulties and dangers of transportation
33
Society organized to exist with the minimum of commerce the medieval village
34
Selfsufficiency of the villages low stage of the arts of production
35
Exceptional instances of higher organization of industry
36
Common wares of commerce in the period of the manor
37
SECTION PAGE 41 Distant commerce confined to rare luxuries
38
Questions and topics
39
Bibliography
40
CHAPTER VI
41
Rise of towns after 1000 conditions determining their location
42
Effect of the towns in improving the conditions in the country
43
The foreign trade of this period was that between towns even in the same country
44
Small size of the medieval towns
45
Improvement in conditions in the later Middle Ages
46
Town organization The merchant gilds
47
Position of the merchant gilds their privilege of monopoly
48
The craft gilds
49
Town policy imports exports protection
50
The market and its regulations
51
Questions and topics
52
Bibliography
53
CHAPTER VII
54
Lack of bridges
55
Danger of violence on the road
56
Tolls imposed by feudal authorities
57
Abuses of the tolls
59
SECTION PAGE 69 Constraint of trade by tolls Exemptions
60
Burden of the tolls on trade
61
Bibliography
62
CHAPTER VIII
63
Privileges of merchants trading at a fair
64
Great fairs in Europe The fairs of Champagne
65
Trade at the Champagne fairs other continental fairs
67
Questions and topics
68
Bibliography
69
CHAPTER IX
70
Development of shipping in northern Europe
71
Backwardness of the art of navigation
72
Introduction of the compass and of navigators directories
73
Medieval seaports contrast with modern
74
Development of maritime commerce persistence of medieval ideas
75
Organized piracy privateering
76
Questions and topics
77
Bibliography
78
CHAPTER X
79
Drugs perfumes sugar
80
SECTION PAGE 92 Dyestuffs alum
81
Other raw materials of industry
82
Revival of Oriental trade about 1000 under the leadership of Italians
83
Routes between Asia and Europe
84
Character of the crusades number of crusaders
86
Commercial aspect of the crusades
87
Effect of the crusades on knowledge of the East and of eastern wares
88
Bibliography
89
CHAPTER XI
90
Extent of Venetian commerce
92
Development of the institutions of commerce in Venice
93
Overland trade with Germany
94
Strict control over German merchants in Venice
95
Importance of the trade between Venice and Germany
96
Regulation of this commerce the Flanders galleys
97
Development of other cities in Italy freedom and vigor of their policy
98
Inland cities Florence
99
Questions and topics
100
Bibliography
101
CHAPTER XII
102
Exports from the Baltic mainly raw materials
103
Contrast of the history of the commercial cities in Italy and in Germany
104
Extent and organization of the League
105
Methods of trading factories
107
Flanders and Bruges
108
Decline of Bruges in the fifteenth century rise of Antwerp
109
English trade passive until the close of the Middle Ages
110
Questions and topics
111
Bibliography
112
CHAPTER XIII
113
Development of commercial association in the Middle Ages
115
Advantages of association
116
Spread of the practice of association from Italy
117
Character of currency in the Middle Ages
118
Difficulty in making payments in distant places
119
Introduction of the bill of exchange
120
Questions and topics
121
Bibliography
122
CHAPTER XIV
123
Effect on commerce of a strong and of a weak central govern ment
124
Rise of a national commercial policy
125
Characteristic features of commercial policy
126
Questions and topics
127
CHAPTER XV
128
Belief that Asia could be reached by sailing westward
132
CHAPTER XVI
139
Association in the form of the regulated company
145
SECTION PAGE 165 Objections to the form of the regulated company
146
Good and bad sides of joint stock companies
147
Questions and topics
148
Bibliography
149
CHAPTER XVII
150
Description of the rise of discount and deposit banking in Eng land
151
Description of the Fugger business
152
Weakness of the Fugger and other banking firms
153
Description of business in Antwerp in the sixteenth century
154
Development of business on the exchanges produce and money
155
Advantages offered to industry and commerce by the exchanges
156
Dangers of the new system of business promotion of unprofit able enterprises
157
Description of the Bubble Period in England
158
The crisis of the Company of the Indies in France
159
Questions and topics
160
CHAPTER XVIII
161
Growth in power of the central government as shown in the development of taxation
162
Persistence of medieval conditions in the modern period
163
Attention distracted from internal reforms by foreign interests
164
Wars occasioned by religious and dynastic interests
165
Wars arising from the conflict of colonial interests in the New World
166
The mercantile system aiming to increase the stock of ready money in the country
167
Features of the mercantile system restriction of imports
168
Encouragement of exports manufactures and shipping
169
Important effects of the mercantile system in other ways
170
Colonial policy
171
Questions and topics i
172
Bibliography
173
CHAPTER XIX
174
Economic decline in the following period
176
Causes of decline faulty political organization
177
The burden of taxes
178
Examples of bad policy the Mesta
179
Spanish colonial policy Taxes
180
Restriction of trade to appointed fleets
181
Supply of the market by smugglers
182
Reform of the colonial system about 1750
183
Portugal promise of commercial greatness in the sixteenth century
184
Failure of Portugal to maintain her position
185
Dependence of Portugal on England
186
Questions and topics
187
Bibliography
188
CHAPTER XX
190
Dutch commercial policy
191
The East India Company
192
Leading position of the Dutch in European commerce
193
Growth of business activity
194
Reasons for decline
195
Character of the Dutch East India Company
196
Questions and topics
197
Bibliography
198
CHAPTER XXI
199
Benefits of the English political constitution
200
Agencies helping to extend English commerce
201
Relative standing of the English ports
202
Characteristics of the companies
204
Rapid growth of commerce in the eighteenth century
205
Questions and topics
206
Bibliography
208
CHAPTER XXII
209
2 Development of production explaining the growth of the export trade Agriculture
210
CHAPTER XXIII
219
Burden of the tariff
225
Effect of the absolute monarchy on French development
231
Bloom of French commerce in the fifteenth century as shown in the business of Jacques Coeur
232
The bulk of French commerce still with nearby countries
233
Founding of commercial companies and colonial expansion
234
Reasons for the failure of these enterprises
235
Decline of the French colonial empire in the eighteenth cen tury
236
Analysis of French commerce in the eighteenth century
238
Value of the French sugar colonies
239
Bibliography
240
CHAPTER XXV
242
282 Persistence of local toll barriers
243
Manufactures the gild system maintaind in spite of its bad effects
244
Influence of the gilds in preventing technical progress
245
Narrow restrictions imposed on manufactures by the govern ment
246
Burden of these restrictions on manufactures
247
Questions and topics
248
CHAPTER XXVI
250
Development of the economic organization
251
Condition of the Baltic trade
252
Decline of the commerce of South Germany
253
SECTION PAGE 294 The chief cause of decline of German commerce in this period was political
254
The natural outlets of commerce stopped by hostile states
255
Restriction of manufactures by the gilds
256
The eighteenth century marked by general depression with some signs of improvement
257
Reforms in Prussia favoring economic development
258
Contrast of Prussia and Austria
259
Slow progress of industry and commerce
260
Austrian commerce still backward in 1800
261
Bibliography
262
CHAPTER XXVII
263
Blows at Venetian trade both by sea and land routes to India
264
Decline of commerce and industry in Tuscany
265
Conditions in the Scandinavian countries
266
Rise of Russia to a position among the European states about 1700 267 314 Character of Russian commerce in the eighteenth century
267
Questions and topics
268
PART IV
270
Increase in the relative importance of commerce
271
The world now passing through a commercial revolution
272
Possible explanations of recent commercial development
273
Prime importance of technical factors especially the use of coal
274
Dependence of modern industry on coal 275
277
Bibliography
278
CHAPTER XXIX
280
Function of machinery 281
283
Development of machine tools for working iron
284
Steel character and utility
285
The openhearth SiemensMartin process
286
Influences determining the local distribution of manufactures
287
Questions and topics
288
Bibliography
289
CHAPTER XXX
290
Importance of roads in the present transportation system
291
Advantage of transportation by water canals
292
Development of canals 17501850
293
Origin of the steam railroad
295
Early period of the railroad
296
Importance of steel in railroad construction
297
Development of the railroad system after 1850
298
Importance of railroads at present
299
The Suez Canal and its services to commerce
308
The postal service about 1800
309
Postal reforms and their results
310
The electric telegraph
311
Submarine telegraph lines
312
Bibliography
314
CHAPTER XXXII
315
Abolition of the slave trade
316
The great wares of commerce Coal
317
Petroleum
318
Extent and importance of the grain trade at present
319
Commerce in other foodstuffs
320
Commerce in raw materials for the textile manufacture
321
Colonial products
322
Rise of beet sugar and effect on commerce
323
Questions and topics
324
Bibliography
326
CHAPTER XXXIII
327
Regularity
328
Sensitiveness
329
Importance of the telegraph illustrated by conditions preced ing its introduction
330
Services of the telegraph to the modern organization
331
Functions of the merchant
332
Insurance and speculation
333
Services of the speculator to commerce
334
Decline of the market and fair and rise of the produce exchange
335
Contrast of the character of association in commerce and in manufactures or transportation
336
Benefit of banks to trade
337
Crises before 1850
338
Questions and topics
339
Bibliography
341
CHAPTER XXXIV
342
Napoleon and the Continental System
343
English reprisals 404 Failure of the Continental System
344
Effect of the war on England and France
345
Other wars of the nineteenth century
346
Removal of old obstacles to commerce 408 Customs tariffs the prohibitive system
347
The period of free trade 18601880
348
Reduction of customs duties 411 The return to protection
349
Colonial policy
350
Questions and topics
351
Bibliography
352
CHAPTER XXXV
354
Change in the relative importance of different exports
355
Development of English manufactures
356
Introduction of machinery
357
Character of the import trade
358
Increase in importance of trade with distant continents
359
Trade with other distant countries
360
Colonies in North America and Australasia
361
Bibliography
363
Prevalence of smuggling
366
CHAPTER XXXVII
373
CHAPTER XXXVIII
381
SECTION PAGE
384
CHAPTER XXXIX
391
Return to protection in 1879
397
SECTION PAGE 477 Efficiency of the mercantile organization
403
Other factors in commercial development
404
Examples of German success in trade
405
Questions involved in the German tariff policy
406
Questions and topics
407
CHAPTER XLI
409
Backward features of industry and commerce
410
Effect of the tariff on commerce
411
Effect of the reform on commerce
412
Results of the treaty of 1860
413
Growth of protective duties
414
Position of France in moder n commerce
415
Questions and topics
416
Bibliography
417
CHAPTER XLII
418
Dutch commerce since 1830
419
Position of the Dutch in present commerce
420
Belgian commercial policy
421
Switzerland obstacles to industrial development
422
AustriaHungary survey of commercial development
423
Growth of commerce since 1850
424
The Scandinavian States their position in present commerce
425
Norway Norwegian shipping
426
Bibliography
427
CHAPTER XLIII
429
Establishment of Italian unity
430
Survey of Italian commerce since 1860
431
Increase of customs duties protection tariff war
432
Italian agriculture poverty of the people
433
Manufactures
434
Shipping colonies
435
Spain
436
Spanish commerce in the first half of the century
437
Portugal
438
Questions and topics
439
CHAPTER XLIV
441
Russian commerce about 1800
442
Chief ports
443
SECTION PAGE 536 Reforms growth of the railroad system
444
Character of industries and commerce
445
Recent history of the tariff
446
Effect of the tariff on agriculture
447
Effect on railroads
448
Course of the Asiatic trade
450
States of the Balkan peninsula
451
Commerce of the Balkan states
452
Bibliography
454
Topics for review
455
PART V
456
Chief exports in 1790 rf
458
Breadstuffs
459
Other products of northern agriculture
460
Rice and indigo
461
Methods of agriculture
462
Fisheries
463
Chief imports 1791
464
Significance of the import of manufactures
465
Household selfsufficiency
466
Development of household manufactures
467
Appreciation and criticism of American manufactures at this time
468
Questions and topics
469
Bibliography general and early
470
section page 564 Development of internal trade 17891900
472
Sparsity of passenger traffic
473
Importance of the country store
474
Relative smallness of interstate trade 475A
475
Share of different States in foreign commerce
476
Development of the chief seaports into cities
477
Insignificance of direct trade with Asia and Africa
478
Unique position of England in trade with the United States
479
Importance of the West Indies as an outlet for wares excluded from Europe
480
Development of shipbuilding in the colonial period
481
Extension of American shipping
482
Questions and topics
483
CHAPTER XLVII
485
Policy of England
486
Conditions of American trade with Europe in 1789
487
Conditions of trade with the West Indies
488
Survey of American commerce 17891815
489
Varying fortunes of foreign trade not explained by conditions at home
490
Conditions abroad effect of the European wars on domestic exports
491
Effect on foreign exports and on the carrying trade
492
SECTION PAGE 594 Check to prosperity after 1800
493
Decline of commerce embargo and war
494
Considerations determining early tariff policy
495
Survey of tariff policy
496
Bibliography
497
CHAPTER XLVIII
498
Absorption of the national energy in territorial expansion
499
Importance of the problem of transportation in this period
501
Failure of the turnpikes to meet the countrys demands
502
Importance of the western waterways
503
Development of river transportation
505
Demand for canals in this period
506
Commercial benefit of the canals
507
Canals less important than rivers for distant shipments
509
Early American railroads little used for freight traffic 510 y 615 Extension of the railroad system in the West after 1850
511
Prosperity of the American merchant marine
514
Navigation policy reforms and restrictions
515
Questions and topics
516
Bibliography
517
CHAPTER XLIX
518
SECTION PAGE 622 Cotton before 1800
519
Growth in importance of cotton
520
Invention of the saw gin by Whitney 1793
521
King Cotton
522
Slight contributions of the South to exports aside from cotton 523
523
Trade between the North the South and Europe
524
Gradual increase in the exports of foodstuffs
525
Questions and topics
526
CHAPTER L
528
Growth of domestic manufactures
529
Increase in the use of coal
530
Other manufactures
532
Dependence of the South on the North for manufactured wares
533
Course of tariff policy 18161860
534
Effect of the tariff on industrial development
535
Northern ports and the import trade
536
Trade with Canada and the West Indies
537
Expansion of American commerce in Europe South America and the far East
538
CHAPTER LI
540
Extension of railroads
541
Improvements in the operation of railroads
542
Reduction of railroad rates
543
Relative decline in transportation by canals and rivers
544
Decline of American shipping
545
Effect of the Civil War on the merchant marine
546
Present position of the merchant marine
547
Coal production and the use of steam power
548
Machinery
549
Questions and topics
550
Bibliography
551
CHAPTER LII
553
Reasons for the increase of agricultural exports
555
Wheat and flour
556
Indian corn
557
Cotton
558
iron
559
Machinery
560
Copper
561
Development of the oil industry
562
SECTION PAGE 681 Survey of the import trade 18601900 664
564
Character of foods imported
565
Increase in raw materials imported 666
566
The chief raw materials among imports
567
Variety of imported manufactures
568
Increase in protective duties 669
569
Leading ports 18601900 670
570
Direction of commerce abroad
571
Importance of the English trade
572
The Americas and Asia
574
Questions and topics
575
Topics for review 577
577
CHAPTER LIV
579
Railroads and shipping of the world
580
Increased efficiency of the carrying trade
581
Share of leading countries in the worlds commerce
582
Illustration by the recent commerce of Japan
584
Relative decline of the United Kingdom in the worlds markets
585
Relative importance of the internal and the foreign trade of the United States
586
Change in the character of the export trade
587
SECTION PAGE
588
342
604
A8 349 349 350
612
Titles op Books cited by Abbreviations
632
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