Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations

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National Academies Press, Aug 5, 2005 - Technology & Engineering - 227 pages
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Autonomous vehicles (AVs) have been used in military operations for more than 60 years, with torpedoes, cruise missiles, satellites, and target drones being early examples.1 They have also been widely used in the civilian sector--for example, in the disposal of explosives, for work and measurement in radioactive environments, by various offshore industries for both creating and maintaining undersea facilities, for atmospheric and undersea research, and by industry in automated and robotic manufacturing.

Recent military experiences with AVs have consistently demonstrated their value in a wide range of missions, and anticipated developments of AVs hold promise for increasingly significant roles in future naval operations. Advances in AV capabilities are enabled (and limited) by progress in the technologies of computing and robotics, navigation, communications and networking, power sources and propulsion, and materials.

Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations is a forward-looking discussion of the naval operational environment and vision for the Navy and Marine Corps and of naval mission needs and potential applications and limitations of AVs. This report considers the potential of AVs for naval operations, operational needs and technology issues, and opportunities for improved operations.
  

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Contents

Introduction
13
US MILITARY OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT PRESENT AND FUTURE
14
THE PROMISE OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
18
ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT
19
Naval Vision Operations and Autonomous Vehicle Applications
20
NAVAL MISSION NEEDS AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
24
POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
35
Autonomy Technology Capabilities and Potential
45
NAVAL OPERATIONAL NEEDS AND TECHNOLOGY ISSUES
128
OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVED OPERATIONS
130
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
131
Unmanned Ground Vehicles Capabilities and Potential
135
THE POTENTIAL OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLES FOR NAVAL OPERATIONS
137
NAVAL OPERATIONAL NEEDS AND TECHNOLOGY ISSUES
146
OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVED NAVAL OPERATIONS
153
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
154

LEVELS OF AUTONOMY
51
USING LEVEL OF MISSION AUTONOMY AS A DESIGN CHOICE
59
AUTONOMY TECHNOLOGY
67
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
79
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Capabilities and Potential
82
OPERATIONAL CATEGORIES OF NAVAL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MISSIONS
88
THE POTENTIAL OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR NAVAL OPERATIONS
89
TECHNOLOGY ISSUES AND NEEDS
98
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
105
Unmanned Surface and Undersea Vehicles Capabilities and Potential
116
THE POTENTIAL OF AUTONOMOUS UNDERSEA AND SURFACE VEHICLES FOR NAVAL OPERATIONS
117
OVERVIEW OF UNMANNED SURFACE AND UNDERSEA VEHICLES AVAILABLE OR IN DEVELOPMENT
120
Integrating Autonomy in NetworkCentric Operations
158
UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE COMMUNICATIONS
161
INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE AND UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES
169
INTEROPERABILITY ISSUES FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
174
UNMANNED SPACE SYSTEMS
178
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
182
Appendixes
187
Biographies of Committee Members and Staff
189
Some PhysicsBased Constraints on Autonomous Vehicles Scaling Energy Sensing and Communications
199
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles System Descriptions
216
Acronyms and Abbreviations
231
Copyright

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Page x - Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence), (703) 614-0578, or DSN 224-0578.
Page 11 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition (ASN(RD&A...
Page 7 - ... areas such as unattended open ocean force protection, drug and law enforcement, and environmental monitoring. Keywords: UUV Payload, buoy, C/NA Vehicle, port security, harbor protection, cargo containers, ID tracking. Coast Guard patrol aid, UUV mission execution, homeland defense. 1. INTRODUCTION In 1999 the Department of the Navy adopted a new process for concentrating its scientific and technological resources to achieve Future Naval Capabilities (FNC). One of the twelve approved capabilities...

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Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations
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Onward and Upward with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
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