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abscesses acid alcohol aniline aniline colors animal body anthrax antiseptic appear attack bacilli bacillus anthracis bacteria bacterium blood blood-vessels boiling carbolic acid cause cent Centralblatt chemical claims cocci containing cultivated culture decomposition destroy detected diphtheria dried erysipelas evidence examined existence experiments fermentation flask fluid forms of bacteria free oxygen fungi gelatine germ theory granules grow growth guinea-pigs heat hence immunity infection inflammation influence inoculation instances interior intestinal invariably invasion killed Klebs Koch Koch's lesions living material membranes micro micro-organisms micrococci micromillimeters microscope mode nature observations obtained occur organs original osteomyelitis oxygen parasites Pasteur pathogenic patients poisoning presence produced prove putrefaction putrid pyaemia quantity rabbits researches resistance rods seen septicaemia serum shown skin solution species specimen spirilla splenic fever spores sputum staining methods sterilized substances suppuration surface symptoms temperature tion tissues tubercular tuberculosis vaccination vegetable vessels virulence virus zoogloea
Page 80 - After reviewing in detail the experiments upon the lower animals attesting these facts, the author makes the following summary : The bacterial origin of a^ disease can only be proven by the following observations : First — A characteristic bacterial species must always be found associated with the disease, and to an extent corresponding to the nature and degree of the disease. Secondly — It must be shown that the same disease can be reproduced in susceptible beings by means of the isolated parasites...
Page 186 - Of more significance is the detection of the same — or similar — micrococci in the blood of the living patient during severe attacks. But since these parasites were found only in the more severe cases and not in all instances of the disease, were seen also in the blood of other septic disorders, and since no cultures have been made with the fresh blood, there is not yet enough evidence for any decision. In the internal organs bacteria are not found with any regularity in diphtheria.
Page 3 - ... microscopic beings in the interior of the animal body, and in the number of diseases in which the germ theory reveals the origin is constantly increasing. * If we were to drop our acquired medical notions, and were to approach the study of disease from the standpoint of the modern naturalist, the germ theory would present itself in a more attractive light. Throughout nature, every species of living beings struggles for its existence with all other beings with which it comes in immediate contact....
Page 82 - ... associated with the disease, and to an extent corresponding to the nature and degree of the disease. Secondly — It must be shown that the same disease can be reproduced in susceptible beings by means of the isolated parasites — freed from all animal matter or poisons. The proof of a parasitic origin of disease is only complete when the same disease can be reproduced by inoculation with the cultivated bacteria.
Page 2 - ... entertaining, liberal, and while scientific is understandingly technical. There is sufficient clinical importance attached to this work to make the following extracts interesting at this time, and they may provoke discussion that will lead to a better understanding of the theories herein set forth. " In the light of the germ theory, diseases are to be considered as a struggle between the organism and the parasite invading it.
Page 181 - Chauveau4 proved that vaccine virus is deprived of its active substance by filtration. Hence, it became more than probable that the contagion was a living organism, and no gaseous or diffusible product. " For when he carefully poured a stratum of water upon a layer of lymph, in tiny tubes, he obtained a diffusion of the dissolved material into the water, but this clear solution could not produce pustules like the insoluble residue.
Page 186 - Their presence in the exposed dead tissue is no evidence, for the membrane represents but the necrotic mucous lining Indeed, when the healthy mucous membrane of the mouth or trachea is destroyed by caustics — for instance, ammonia — the eschar into which it is converted — really a pseudo-membrane — contains the same micrococci as are found in true diphtheria, as Wood and Formad have learned. Moreover, in the scrapings of the healthy tongue the same micrococci can be seen. Of more significance...
Page 53 - Koch places bromine, iodine and chlorine. Carbolic acid, the most •common antiseptic agent, is by no means as reliable -as is usually supposed.
Page 10 - ... disagreeable smell, are termed rotting. The invariable presence of bacteria in all putrefying material suggests their close relation to that process, but whether cause or result— can only be decided by experiment, not by observation alone. The experimental proof, however, is so conclusive that it must be accepted as an axiom, that no putrefaction can occur without the presence of bacteria, and that bacteria are the sole and only cause of such decomposition.
Page 28 - Observation has shown that a bacterial generation can arise in the course of about one hour. At this rate a single bacterium would produce two in one hour; these by doubling would increase to four in the second hour, and so on — until after the lapse 'of three days the scarcely conceivable figure of 4772 billions would be •attained.