Polarized Light in Nature

Front Cover
CUP Archive, 1985 - Science - 172 pages
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Contents

Forms of polarized light
3
Linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light
5
Partially polarized light and degree of polarization
6
definitions
7
why does it occur so often?
8
Observing polarized light
11
Observing with filters
12
Minimum observable degree of polarization
16
puddles lakes the sea and the ocean
93
The deep blue sea
96
The underwater world
97
Nocturnal sources of light and artificial light
100
Stars planets and other celestial bodies
102
Aurora
104
Zodiacal light gegenschein and airglow
105
The phosphorescent sea wood fireflies etc
109

a test with three polarizing filters
18
Polarized light phenomena in Nature
23
a survey
25
The blue sky and the clouds
29
colour effects with a polarizing filter
31
Twilight and negative polarization
32
Observation without filters of the polarization of light from the sky
33
polarization contrasts
36
Visibility of stars and planets by day
37
Total solar eclipse
38
general features
40
Polarization contrasts between iceclouds and waterclouds Dustclouds sandclouds and smoke
41
Polarization and negative polarization of clouds at twilight
42
Noctilucent clouds and nacreous clouds
43
Rainbows haloes glories and related phenomena
46
Rainbows
47
The sky near rainbows
49
Reflectionbows and abnormal rainbows
51
Fogbows and cloudbows
53
A thirteenth rainbow?
56
how they come about
60
a general view
61
Polarization of parhelia circles and arcs at 22 from the sun
63
Haloes at 46 from the sun
65
Circles and tangent arcs at unusual distances from the sun
66
Haloes on blurred panes
68
The glory
69
The diffraction corona the heiligenschein and iridescent clouds
72
Natural scenery and objects around us
74
Plains
76
Roads and mirages
78
Paper frosted glass houses stones mountains and metals
79
The motorcar
81
Plants animals and men
82
The circularly polarized gloss of certain beetles
84
Glass objects panes diamond quartz and other transparent materials
85
Car windscreens and other doublyrefracting kinds of glass
89
colour phenomena in polarized light Demonstrations of slides with cellophane
92
Incandescent objects fire sparks and lightning
110
Sources of light in a town
112
Artificial sources of light such as lamps dialplates of watches fluorescent lighttubes and TVtubes
113
Colour phenomena of minerals in polarized light
117
How to make observations
118
Uniaxial crystals e g calcite
120
Biaxial crystals e g aragonite
121
Optical activity in sugar solutions and in minerals e g quartz
122
Pleochroic minerals e g glaucophane tourmaline and epidote Brewsters brush and idiophanic rings
125
The formation of polarized light in Nature
127
Introduction
129
The formation of polarized light from unpolarized light
131
Scattering by small or large particles
132
External reflection by nonmetals
133
Internal reflection by nonmetals and total reflection
134
Metallic reflection
135
Reflection by rough surfaces
136
conclusion
137
emission polarization
138
Surface waves
139
Polarization by double refraction
140
Polarization by selective absorption dichroism and trichroism
142
The alteration of the state of polarization by reflection and other mechanisms
144
Reflection of linearly polarized light by smooth nonmetals
146
Reflection of circularly polarized light by smooth nonmetals
147
Reflection of linearly polarized light by rough surfaces
148
Total reflection of polarized light
149
Reflection of polarized light by metallic surfaces
150
general description
151
Chromatic polarization
153
Crystallooptics optical mineralogy
156
Optical rotation
157
Sources of polarized light
160
Synchrotron radiation
161
Conclusion and overview
162
References
164
Index
166
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