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acid aeration alkalinity alum American Water amount apparatus backwash bicarbonate blowdown blowoff boiler water calcium and magnesium calcium carbonate calcium sulphate carbon dioxide carbonate hardness caustic soda chemical solution chlorine coagulation combination concentration condenser corrosion deaerating dissolved solids effect embrittlement Engineering Chemistry evaporator excess filtration grains per gallon gravity hard water heater hydrogen hydroxide impurities Industrial and Engineering ions iron Journal lime and soda-ash Magnesium bicarbonate make-up water manganese mineral noncarbonate hardness operating organic matter phosphate pipe plants precipitates pressure prevent pump rapid sand filter ratio raw water react reaction tank regenerated remove residual salts sand bed sedimentation settling basin settling tank silica sludge soda ash sodium alkalinity sodium carbonate sodium sulphate soft water soluble steam suspended matter tastes and odors total hardness treated water trisodium phosphate turbidity valve wash water Water Softening water supply Water Works Association zeolite zeolite softener