The Development of Ethics: Volume 2 : From Suarez to Rousseau: From Suarez to Rousseau, Volume 2 (Google eBook)

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Oxford University Press, Jul 31, 2008 - Philosophy - 936 pages
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The Development of Ethics is a selective historical and critical study of moral philosophy in the Socratic tradition, with special attention to Aristotelian naturalism. It discusses the main topics of moral philosophy as they have developed historically, including: the human good, human nature, justice, friendship, and morality; the methods of moral inquiry; the virtues and their connexions; will, freedom, and responsibility; reason and emotion; relativism, subjectivism, and realism; the theological aspect of morality. This volume examines early modern moral philosophy from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Volume 3 will continue the story up to Rawls's Theory of Justice. The present volume begins with Suarez's interpretation of Scholastic moral philosophy, and examines seventeenth- and eighteenth- century responses to the Scholastic outlook, to see how far they constitute a distinctively different conception of moral philosophy. The treatments of natural law by Grotius, Hobbes, Cumberland, and Pufendorf are treated in some detail. Disputes about moral facts, moral judgments, and moral motivation, are traced through Cudworth, Clarke, Balguy, Hutcheson, Hume, Price, and Reid. Butler's defence of a naturalist account of morality is examined and compared with the Aristotelian and Scholastic views discussed in Volume 1. The volume ends with a survey of the persistence of voluntarism in English moral philosophy, and a brief discussion of the contrasts and connexions between Rousseau and earlier views on natural law. The emphasis of the book is not purely descriptive, narrative, or exegetical, but also philosophical. Irwin discusses the comparative merits of different views, the difficulties that they raise, and how some of the difficulties might be resolved. The book tries to present the leading moral philosophers of the past as participants in a rational discussion that is still being carried on, and tries to help the reader to participate in this discussion.
  

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Contents

Law and Obligation
1
Naturalism
28
32 Natural Law and Modern Moral Philosophy
70
33 Grotius
88
Motives and Reasons
100
From Human Nature to Morality
125
Morality
157
37 Spinoza
179
Morality and Natural Theology
465
Nature
476
Superior Principles
489
Naturalism and Morality
507
Implications of Naturalism
539
Nature
558
Passion and Reason
579
Errors of Objectivism
598

38 The British Moralists
204
39 Cumberland and Maxwell
219
40 Cudworth
239
41 Locke and Natural Law
264
42 Pufendorf
284
Naturalism and Eudaemonism
312
44 Pufendorf and Natural Law
332
45 Shaftesbury
353
46 Clarke
372
For and Against Moral Realism
399
For and Against Utilitarianism
421
A Defence of Rationalism
439
The Moral Sense
620
The Virtues
641
60 Smith
678
61 Price
714
Action and Will
754
Knowledge and Morality
782
64 Voluntarism Egoism and Utilitarianism
812
65 Rousseau
852
Bibliography
883
Index
899
Copyright

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