Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating: Volume I: The Development of the Statistical Tools Volume II: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval Records

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 1993 - History - 240 pages
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Today the methods of applied statistics have penetrated very different fields of knowledge, including the investigation oftexts ofvarious origins. These "texts" may be considered as signal sequences of different kinds, long genetic codes, graphic representations (which may be coded and represented by a "text"), as well as actual narrative texts (for example, historical chronicles, originals, documents, etc. ). One ofthe most important problems arising here is to recognize dependent text, i. e. , texts which have a measure of "resemblance", arising from some kind of "common origin". For instance, in pattern-recognition problems, it is essential to identify from a large set of "patterns" a pattern that is "closest" to a given one; in studying long signal sequences, it is important to recognize "homogeneous subsequences" and the places of their junction. This includes, in particular, the well-known change-point prob lern, which is given considerable attention in mathematical statistics and the theory of stochastic processes. As applied to the study of narrative texts, the problern of recognizing depen dent and independent texts ( e . g. , chronicles) Ieads to the problern offinding texts having a common source, i. e. , the sameoriginal (such texts are naturally called dependent), or, on the contrary, having different sources (such texts are natu rally called independent). Clearly, such problems are exceedingly complicated, and therefore the appearance of new empirico-statistical recognition methods which, along with the classical approaches, may prove useful in concrete studies (e. g. , source determination) is welcome.
  

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Contents

Problems of Ancient and Medieval Chronology
1
12 The Dark Ages and the Renaissance epochs
2
13 How to substantiate ancient chronology
3
new possibilities
5
15 The duplication effect in ancient history and chronology
7
16 The global chronological diagram and the modern textbook of ancient and medieval history
8
17 The modern textbook a composition of four identical pieces
10
18 Certain corollaries and interpretations
11
References
87
New Experimental and Statistical Methods for Dating Events of Ancient History and Their Applications to the Global Chronology of Ancient and Me...
88
8 Problems of Historical Chronology
89
82 Scaliger Petavius Christian chronographers and secular chronography
90
83 Questioning the authenticity of Roman tradition Hypercriticism and T Mommsen
93
84 Difficulties in the establishment of Egyptian chronology
94
85 Competing chronological versions De Arcilla J Hardouin I Newton and R Baldauf
96
86 Tacitus and Bracciolioni Cicero and Barzizza
97

19 What is to be done with the moons elongation?
12
References
13
2 Computation of the Second Derivative of the Moons Elongation and Statistical Regularities in the Distribution of the Records of Ancient Eclipses
15
22 Available observations of ancient solar and lunar eclipses
17
23 A method of formal astronomical dating
18
24 The effect of shifting the dates of eclipses forwards
19
three eclipses of Thucydides
20
the eclipse described by Livy
22
the eclipse described by Livy and Plutarch
23
the evangelical eclipse described in the New Testament in connection with the Crucifixion
24
29 The oscillation of a new graph of D about one and the same value No nongravitational theories are necessary
25
210 Three rigid astronomical shifts of ancient eclipses
28
211 The complete picture of astronomical shifts
31
3 Traditional Chronology of the Flares of Stars and the Dating of Ancient Horoscopes
32
32 Astronomical dating of ancient Egyptian horoscopes
34
33 Astronomical dating of the horoscope described in the Book of Revelation
35
References
37
New Statistical Methods for Dating
39
42 Information characteristics ie informative functions of a historical text Volume function name function and reference function
40
43 A theoretical model describing the distribution of local maxima for the volume function of a historical text Primary stock The information density...
42
44 The correlation of local maxima for the volume graphs of dependent historical chronicles The survivingstock graph
43
45 Mathematical formalization The numerical coefficient dXY which measures the distance between two historical texts X and Y
44
46 Mathematical formulas for computing dXY Mathematical corrections of the maxima correlation principle
47
47 Verification of the maxima correlation principle against concrete historical material
49
48 A new method for dating historical events The method of restoring the graph of the primary and surviving information stock
52
49 The discovery of dependent parallel historical epochs traditionally regarded as different
53
410 The dynasty of rulers and the durations of their reigns as an important informative function
54
411 Frequency distribution of the rules of kings who lived from AD 1400 to 1800 and from 3000 BC to AD 1800
55
412 The concept of statistically parallel historical texts and epochs
57
414 A method of comparing the sets of informative functions for two historical epochs
60
415 A computational experiment
61
416 The remarkable decomposition of the global chronological diagram into the sum of four practically indistinguishable chronicles
62
References
66
5 A Method of Duplicate Recognition and Some Applications to the Chronology of Ancient Dynasties
67
53 Dynasties of rulers The real dynasty and the numerical dynasty Dependent and independent dynasties The smalldistortion principle
68
54 Basic errors leading to controversy among chroniclers as to the duration of kings rules
69
55 The experimental frequency histogram for the duration of the rules of kings
70
57 The smalldistortion principle and a computer experiment
72
58 Pairs of dependent historical dynasties previously regarded as independent
73
510 Dependent dynasties in the Bible and parallel with European history
74
References
75
6 A New EmpiricoStatistical Procedure for Text Ordering and Its Applications to the Problems of Dating
76
63 The method of finding the chronologically correct order of chapters in a historical chronicle
77
64 The frequencyduplicating principle and the method of duplicate recognition
79
the Book of Revelation
81
66 Duplicates of epochs in the modern textbook of ancient history
83
87 Vitruvius and L Alberti
98
88 The chaos of medieval datings E Bickerman Medieval anachronisms and medieval concepts of time
99
89 The chronology of the biblical manuscripts L Teschendorf
102
810 Vowels in ancient manuscripts
103
811 Traditional biblical geography
104
812 Problems of geographical localization of ancient events
105
813 Modern analysis of biblical geography
107
814 Ancient originals and medieval duplicates Anachronisms as a common feature in medieval chronicles
110
815 Names and nicknames Handwritten books
112
9 Astronomical and Mathematical Analysis of the Almagest
113
92 On the statistical characteristics of the Almagest The structure of the star catalogue
115
93 The accuracy of the Almagests star coordinates
119
94 The problem of dating the Almagest from the individual stars proper motion
120
95 Halleys discovery of the stars proper motion and the Almagest
128
10 Archaeological Dating Methods
131
102 Numismatics
132
103 The dendrochronological method
133
11 Astronomical Dating Ancient Eclipses and Horoscopes
136
12 New Experimental and Statistical Methods of Dating Ancient Events
140
123 Method of recognition and dating the dynasties of ancient rulers The smalldistortion principle
143
124 The frequencydamping principle A method of ordering texts in time
145
125 Applications to Roman and Greek history
148
126 The frequencyduplication principle The duplicatediscovery method
151
127 Statistical analysis of the complete list of all the names mentioned in the Bible
152
128 Statistical analysis of the complete list of all parallel passages in the Bible
155
129 Duplicates in the Bible
157
1210 The enquetecode or formalized biography method
159
1211 A method for the chronological ordering of ancient maps
160
13 Construction of the Global Chronological Diagram and Certain Results of Applying the Dating Methods to Ancient History
162
133 Dependent dynasties
163
134 The agreement of different methods
165
135 Three basic chronological shifts
166
136 Biblical history and European history
168
137 The beginning of authentic history in circa the 10th century AD
173
138 The chronological version of Morozov and the authors conception
174
139 The confusion between the two Romes
175
1310 A universal mechanism which could lead to the chroniclers chronological errors
177
1311 Scaliger Petavius and the Council of Trent Creation of traditional chronology
178
14 The Dark Ages in Medieval History
180
142 Medieval Greece and Athens
187
143 The history of religions
193
144 Indian history and chronology
195
References
196
Index
203
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