Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia
"A remarkably interesting account of Indonesian agricultural history, primarily covering the period of Dutch control, from 1619 to 1942. Drawing on ecology, sociology, and economics, Geertz...provides an insightful and persuasive analysis."—The Annals
"If colonial geography ever succeeds in establishing itself as a discrete and integral focus of inquiry, it may well date its majority to the publication of Agricultural Involution."—Geographical Record
"A brilliant and superbly written study...an incisive, even frightening description of the most crucial dilemma in contemporary Indonesia."—Agricultural History
"A valuable and important study...in which source materials from history, economics, soil science, geography and other fields are brilliantly marshalled and interrelated. But besides being an exemplary study in the interaction of history, physical environment and agricultural technology, this book represents a watershed between narrowly conceived ethnographies and the flood of verbose and ill digested post-war 'technology-and-social-change' monographs that are wont to aim high and hit wide...A model of comparative analytical writing."—Man
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adaptation Allen and Donnithorne analysis Boeke cane capital capital-intensive century coast coffee commercial Conklin copra cultivation Culture System Deli density Dutch ecological economic ecosystem effect enterprise estimates export fact farming fertilization field figures food crops Furnivall growth habitat harvested hectare improved increase indigenous industrial Inner Indonesia involution irrigation Japan Java Java's Javanese Kolff Koppel labor force labor-intensive Lampong land least less main sugar merely Minangkabau monsoon mutualistic natural Netherlands East Indies Ohkawa and Rosovsky organized Outer Indonesia Outer Islands over-all pattern peasant sector Pelzer per-capita percent plantation planted plot Pocketbook of Indonesia political population population density Priangan production regime regions Reinsma rice terrace rural sawah Schrieke shifting cultivation side small-holder rubber social Soedarsono Hadisapoetro soil square kilometer Statistical Pocketbook subsistence sugar areas sugar districts Sumatra Surabaja swidden farmers technical tegal tion tobacco traditional trees tropical forest village wet rice wet-rice yields