## Latent Change Score Analysis of the Impacts of Memory Training in the Elderly from a Randomized Clinical TrialLatent Change Score models are used to examine training effects in a randomized clinical trial on memory training (see McArdle & Prindle, 2008). Data are taken from the Memory and Control groups of ACTIVE (Jobe, Smith, Ball, et al., 2001). First, we examined mean differences in SEMs and find training effects within the trained domain (memory) and transfer to everyday problem solving present for both groups. Second, pre-post test latent change score models find mean training effects for the memory variable with less transfer of training. Third, we use two common factor models to test measurement. Standard likelihood ratio testing suggests invariant loadings do not fit the Near factor but fit the Far factor. Fourth, a latent change score model with common factors did not offer any new information over previous models. Implications and ideas for future analyses are presented in the discussion section. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

Study Methods and Procedures | 9 |

Analysis 1 Post Treatment Effects | 20 |

Analysis 2 PrePost Treatment Effects | 26 |

Analysis 3 Measurement Invariance Effects | 32 |

Analysis 4 Bivariate Latent Change Scores | 37 |

Analysis 5 Adding Covariates to the Models | 41 |

Discussion | 45 |

49 | |

### Common terms and phrases

118 and RMSEA allowed to vary Analysis ANOVA aspects of cognition associated Baltes baseline assessment Bivariate Latent Change centered at 75 change in performance Change Score Models coefficient cognitive abilities difference scores differences between groups everyday abilities everyday activities everyday functioning everyday outcomes examine factor analysis factor loadings Factor Score factor structure factorial invariance Figure gain in fit given improvement individual changes Invariant Common Factor lack of invariance latent change score Latent Mixture Model Latent Variables McArdle & Prindle mean differences Memory Trained group misfit MMSE score mnemonics model 3e model 5f model fit model Table No-Contact control group OTDL Outcome Measures outcome variables parameters participants percentage score post-test scores pre-test scores previous model randomized clinical trial regression Rivermead task sample sleeper effect Speed of Processing technical appendix TIADL training effects training program transfer factor transfer of training transfer scores variance Willis