Battling the plantation mentality: Memphis and the Black freedom struggle
African American freedom is often defined in terms of emancipation and civil rights legislation, but it did not arrive with the stroke of a pen or the rap of a gavel.
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Memphis before World War
Where Would the Negro Women Apply for Work?
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activists African Americans April attorney August Beale Street became Benjamin Hooks Binford black Memphians black women black workers Blacks in Memphis Board censorship Chandler Papers Church civic clubs civil rights cotton Council Crump machine culture declared Delta desegregation Fayette County FEPC folder freedom movement Freedom Train interview by author issues January Jones July June labor Laundry Workers leaders LeMoyne College March Mayor Walter Chandler meeting Memphis Commercial Appeal Memphis NAACP Memphis Press-Scimitar Memphis World Memphis's migrants Mississippi Negro November October officers organizing phis plant plantation mentality police brutality political postwar president Press programs protest race racist radio rally Randolph reported rural sanitation strike sanitation workers segregation September Shelby County sit-in South south Memphis southern struggles Tennessee tion Tri-State Defender union University of Memphis urban vote voters Walter Chandler wdia white women Williams working-class