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HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF MAMMALIAN
HEDGEHOGS SHREWS AND TREE
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adult affiliation aggression agonistic AGONISTIC MESSAGES alarm anal animal antlers approach attack bark beavers behavior biting Bowyer breeding season Brookfield Zoo bucks bugling bulls captive castoreum cats chasing communication conspecifics contact signal copulation courtship cows defensive threat described distress dolphins dominance displays E. O. Wilson estrus expression fawns feces female female's fighting frequently glands grooming hedgehogs herd hertz hind legs howl human infant interactions kittens licking Linsdale and Tomich male mammalian mammals mates McCullough Mech message types meters mother mount mule deer Muller-Schwarze Mykytowycz neonatal nursing observed occur odor olfactory pack Photograph by Roger pikas play posture predators probably pups rabbits rank rats red deer response Roger Peters Roosevelt elk rubbing scent marking similar sniffing social solicitation sometimes species stimulated Struhsaker submission suggests tail tarsal territory advertisement tree shrews urine usually vervets visual vocalizations wapiti whistles whitetails Wilsson wolf wolves young