China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century
'China and the Knowledge Economy' was prepared by World Bank in collaboration with the Chinese government and leading academics. It argues that, in order to address the growing economic, social, and political pressures of the 21st Century, China will have to build solid foundations for a knowledge-based economy by updating the economic and institutional regime, upgrading education and learning, and building information infrastructure. China must also raise the technological level of the economy by diffusing new technologies actively throughout the economy, improving the research and development sytem, and exploiting global knowledge.
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activities agriculture allocate areas basic Beijing billion yuan centers challenges chapter China Science China Statistical China Telecom China Unicom companies competition create devel dissemination efficient employment enrollment environment equipment established exploit exports firms foreign direct investment foreign investment funding global knowledge growth higher education important improve incentives income increase industries information infrastructure innovation system institutions Internet knowledge economy knowledge revolution knowledge-based economy labor licensing ment million Ministry of Science mobile needs networks OECD overseas Chinese parks percent productivity programs projects promote provinces reforms regions regulations regulatory research and development retraining Science and Technology Shanghai share skills social socialist market economy SOEs Source state-owned enterprises strategy Strengthening tech technical telecommunications tertiary tion trade UNCTAD United universities venture capital World Bank Institute World Bank staff World Trade Organization
Page 72 - The ability to understand and employ printed information in daily activities, at home, at work, and in the community - to achieve one's goals and to develop one's knowledge and potential.
Page 40 - A key feature is the quality of government, because its integrity and effectiveness determine the basic rules of a society. Another important element is the extent to which the legal system supports basic rules and property rights.
Page 104 - With falling surplus in agriculture, and so falling per capita income and per capita demand, with cheapening labour but increasingly expensive resources and capital, with farming and transport technologies so good that no simple improvements could be made, rational strategy for peasant and merchant alike tended in the direction not so much of labour-saving machinery as of economizing on resources and fixed capital. Huge but nearly static markets created no bottlenecks in the production system that...
Page 43 - Non-government organizations and the government are also part of the innovation system to the extent that they also produce new knowledge. Institutions central to the dissemination of knowledge include agricultural and industrial extension services, engineering consulting firms, economic and management consulting firms, and government research institutes. The mere existence of these organizations, however, is not enough. More important is how effective they are in creating, adapting and disseminating...
Page 41 - ... educated workers are better able to devise more efficient ways to work. In other words, education enables workers to become innovative and to better absorb and adapt technologies. A skilled labor force plays a crucial role in exploiting the potential offered by the explosion of knowledge. Education is the basis for creating, acquiring, adapting, disseminating, sharing and using knowledge. Even though Latin America's labor force is not as unskilled as the conventional wisdom has it, the region...
Page 41 - ... new technologies. The production of new knowledge and its adaptation to a particular economic setting is generally associated with higher-level teaching and research.
Page 42 - ... technology performance. Innovation and technical progress are the result of a complex set of relationships among actors producing, distributing and applying various kinds of knowledge. The innovative performance of a country depends to a large extent on how these actors relate to each other as elements of a collective system of knowledge creation and use as well as the technologies they use.
Page 41 - Opportunities for life-long learning are also essential. Creating a culture of continuous learning and openness to new ideas is critical for a knowledgebased economy. This should not be limited to learning on the job, but should be expanded to foster learning at home and at school through structured continuing education courses, self-learning on the Internet, or computer-assisted instruction.
Page 4 - An efficient innovation system of firms, science and research centers, universities, think tanks, consultants, and other organizations that can tap into the growing stock of global knowledge, assimilate and adapt it to local needs, and create new knowledge. BOX 9.1 Benchmarking Tanzania in the Global Context Some recent indexes that have been developed to benchmark countries...