Animal Biotechnology:: Science Based Concerns

Front Cover

Genetic-based animal biotechnology has produced new food and pharmaceutical products and promises many more advances to benefit humankind. These exciting prospects are accompanied by considerable unease, however, about matters such as safety and ethics. This book identifies science-based and policy-related concerns about animal biotechnology-key issues that must be resolved before the new breakthroughs can reach their potential.

The book includes a short history of the field and provides understandable definitions of terms like cloning. Looking at technologies on the near horizon, the authors discuss what we know and what we fear about their effects-the inadvertent release of dangerous microorganisms, the safety of products derived from biotechnology, the impact of genetically engineered animals on their environment. In addition to these concerns, the book explores animal welfare concerns, and our societal and institutional capacity to manage and regulate the technology and its products. This accessible volume will be important to everyone interested in the implications of the use of animal biotechnology.

  

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Contents

Introduction
15
THE CURRENT STATE OF ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
16
THE ORIGINS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN ANIMAL AGRICULTURE
18
CONCERNS REGARDING EXTANT TECHNOLOGIES
22
LIMITS OF THE REPORT
31
Applications of Biotechnology Techniques
34
DIRECTED GENETIC MANIPULATION
37
PROPAGATION BY NUCLEAR TRANSFER
39
IN VITRO CULTURE
94
EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION AND NUMBER OF ANIMALS NEEDED
96
MUTATIONS
97
GENE EXPRESSION
98
UNIQUENESS OF TRANSGENIC ANIMALS
99
NUCLEAR TRANSFER
100
BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
102
FARMING
104

TECHNICAL ISSUES WITH GERMLINE MODIFICATION
41
CONCERNS RELATED TO GERMLINE TECHNOLOGY
42
ISSUES RELATED TO SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
47
CONCLUSIONS
49
Animals Engineered for Human Health Purposes
51
XENOTRANSPLANTATION
54
Food Safety Concerns
61
BACKGROUND
62
FOOD PRODUCTS FROM NONGENETICALLY ENGINEERED CLONED ANIMALS
63
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ANIMALS
65
Environmental Concerns
73
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF RISK ANALYSIS
74
PRIORITIZING GE ANIMALS FOR LEVEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN
76
RISKS POSED BY KEY CLASSES OF GE ANIMALS
87
NEED FOR MORE INFORMATION CONCERNING RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT
92
Animal Health and Welfare
93
POTENTIAL ANIMAL WELFARE BENEFITS
105
COSTS VERSUS BENEFITS
106
Concerns Related to Scientific Uncertainty Policy Context Institutional Capacity and Social Implications
108
POLICY CONTEXT
111
INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY
112
SOCIOECONOMIC CULTURAL RELIGIOUS AND ETHICAL FACTORS
116
INTERSECTION OF ETHICS SCIENCE AND PUBLIC POLICY
120
References
122
Glossary
149
Workshop Agenda
158
Regulatory Framework for Animal Biotechnology
161
About the Authors
166
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Publications
169
Index
172
Copyright

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