The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel (Google eBook)

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Carnegie Steel Company, 1920 - Refractory materials - 614 pages
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If you can't find what you need to know about steel or iron in this book, you haven't looked hard enough.

Contents

Uses of Toluene
111
The Manufacture of Pig Iron
125
A Brief Outline of the Process and Equip
130
Equipment for Handling Raw and Finished
150
Stock House Equipment
151
Disposal Equipment for the Iron
152
Filling
153
Heating the Bottom
154
Care of Runners
155
Tapping Slag
156
Some Irregularities of Furnace Operation
157
b Scaffolding
158
Banking
159
a Outline of a Method for Solving a Burdening Problem
161
Table 27 Analysis of Raw Materials Used in the Blast Furnace
163
Behavior of Nitrogen in the Furnace
165
Action of Calcium and Magnesium
166
The Bessemer Process of Manufacturing Steel
172
1 Charging the Vessel
187
Controlling the Blow
188
The End of the Blow
189
1 Deoxidation and Recarburization
190
Loss of Recarburizer and Deoxidizer
191
Teeming
192
1 The Order of Elimination of the Elements
193
Reactions of the First Period
194
Reactions of the Second Period
195
Chemistry of Recarburizing and Deoxidizing
196
1 Early History of the Process
198
Principles of Siemens Pig and Ore Process
199
Mechanical Changes and Improvements in Siemens Process
200
The Process for the Pittsburgh District
201
1 The Modern Plant
202
Fuels
203
Hot Metal Mixer
204
The Stripper
205
The Charging Machine
206
Charging Boxes
207
Chief Features of Basic Open Hearth
209
Regenerators for Natural and Coke Oven Gases
216
Finishing the HeatMaking Steel from
226
Manufacture of Steel in Electric Furnaces
243
Electromagnetic Induction
249
Some General Conclusions
267
The Duplex and Triplex Processes
293
THE SHAPING OF STEEL CHAPTER I The Mechanical Properties of Steel
299
The Mechanical Treatment of Steel
312
The Three Methods for Mechanically Working Steel
316
Essentials of Rolling Mill Construction
322
Parts or the Mill Essential to the Oper
331
Some General Features Pertaining
336
Preparation of the Steel for Rolling
342
The Rolling of Blooms and Slabs
364
The Rolling of Billets and Other Semi
391
1 Difficulties and Methods of RollingSemiFinished Flats
406
Splits or Cracks in Billets and Blooms
417
1 Reheating
418
Types of Reheating Furnaces
419
b The Recuperative or Continuous Furnace 421 3 The Advantages of Continuous Reheating Furnaces
421
1 Methods of Rolling Plates
423
a The Drive and Connections
424
Difficulties in Rolling Sheared Plates
425
The Rolling Process
426
Cooling and Straightening
427
Test Pieces
429
a Shearing Tolerances
430
Slip Maker
431
The Operation of Rolling
432
Straightening Marking and Shearing U M Plate
433
Inspection of Plates
434
1 Development of Rail Manufacture
436
Methods of Rolling Rails
437
How to Study Roll Design
438
Stages of Reduction
439
The Hot Templet
441
e Preparation for the Rolling
443
The Diagonal Method
447
Rolling Heavy Rails
448
The Various Steps in Shaping of Rails
449
Cutting
450
Recording
451
Light Rails
452
The Rolling of Strip and Merchant Mill Products
470
Designing Rolls and Making up Schedules
482
Shearing and Bundling Merchant Mill
490
Manner of Gauging Different Sections
496
The Carnegie Schoen Method
498
The Forging of Circular Shapes
507
The Constitution and Structure of Plain Steel
518
The IronCarbon Eutectic
524
Heat Treating Theory and Practice
539
1 The Tempering Process
554
Nature and Theory of Tempering
555
Methods of Determining Tempering Temperatures
556
Influence of Time in Tempering
557
a Tempering Austenitic Steels
558
Sorbite
559
Change of Constituents Due to Toughening Fig 118
560
Physical Properties of Toughened Steel Tab 62
561
1 The Process of Carburizing Iron
562
Kinds of Steel Suitable for Case Hardening
563
g Chromium
564
b Carburizing Mixtures and Compounds
565
Heating the Carburizing Pack
566
a Controlling the Temperature
567
Heat Treatment of Case Hardened Articles
568
Constituent Elements of Commercial Carbon
569
Alloy Steels
578
Copyright

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Popular passages

Page 13 - Avogadro's principle or hypothesis, which states that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, was the extension of Dalton's Atomic Theory necessary to put the theoretical interpretation of chemistry on a solid foundation.
Page 4 - ... varies directly as the product of the two masses, and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
Page 244 - The foot-pound is called the unit of work, and may be defined as the work done by a force of one pound acting through a distance of one foot.
Page 579 - carbon steel," consists chiefly of iron, carbon, and manganese. Other elements are always present, but are not essential to the formation of the steel, and the content of carbon or manganese, or both, may be very small. Alloy steel is steel that contains one or more elements other than carbon in sufficient proportion to modify or improve substantially and positively some of its useful properties.
Page 4 - Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle, with a force whose direction is that of the line joining the two, and whose magnitude is directly as the product of their masses, and inversely as the square of their distance from each other.
Page 316 - ... distance equal to the stroke of the cylinder and then allowed to drop upon the anvil or bottom die. This hammer had the advantage of always keeping the top and bottom dies parallel, but was still lacking in one important particular. Its power being derived from the inertia of the falling tup or ram, the hammer had the least power when it was most needed, that is, when pieces of large diameter or of great thickness were being worked. This fault in the single acting hammer was corrected by the...
Page 590 - Moreover, the presence of both chrome and nickel seems to intensify certain physical characteristics. To the increased ductility and toughness conferred by nickel on the ferrite there is added the mineral hardness given to the cementite and pearlite by the chrome, but with a greater resultant effect.
Page 118 - ... their training and by the extent of their experience with these materials. The presence of magnesium in limestone in small amounts has little effect, but as the content increases, it may lower the fusion point of the resultant slag by the formation of double salts. A high percentage (over 3 per cent) of magnesia in blast furnace slag renders it undesirable for cement, but for concrete, ballast, etc., it is desirable as it makes the slag harder. Aside from this objection, not one of much weight,...
Page 578 - Steel which owes its distinctive properties chiefly to some element or elements other than carbon, or jointly to such other elements and carbon.
Page 289 - The electric furnace gives a metal of low or high carbon content as desired, hot enough to pour into thin molds and still free from slags and gases.

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