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MEASUREMENT OF DIFFERENCE IN ELEVATION
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9 Diff accidental errors adjustment alidade alinement atmospheric refraction azimuth bench marks chaining clamped clinometer Co-tan compass computed contour lines coordinates corner correction Cosine Sine Cosine Cotang cross-hair cross-sections curve deflection angle described in Art determined difference in elevation direct leveling Dist dumpy level earthwork employed engineer's level error of closure established eyepiece feet field problem given grade graduated ground points hand level head chainman horizontal angles horizontal distance instrument intersection latitudes and departures level tube leveling screws line of sight magnetic bearing magnetic declination means meridian method Object.—To objects observed offsets parallel perpendicular plane table plotted location plumb position refraction rod reading side Sine Cosine Sine stadia interval steel tape surveyor's compass systematic error Table VIII.—Continued taken Tang tangent tape length telescope tion tract transit stations transit surveys traverse line triangle usually vernier reading vertical angle vertical axis vertical vernier wyes zero