Poverty, female-headed households, and sustainable economic development
This book examines female-headed households (FHHs) in the world economy, aspects of their poverty, and the implications of those for sustainable development. Following a general discussion of FHHs in the world community, the work discusses FHHs in two regions of India, one being an example of unsuccesssful development and the other of successful development. The research is based on fieldwork in five rural villages. One village, comprising mostly female-headed households, provided a unique case study. The other four villages include both male- and female-headed households with a high proportion of female-headed households. The authors found that female-headed households dominate the poorer sections of the community, and women's access to resources is limited by cultural, social, and economic influences. Women, particularly those in FHHs, bear the heaviest burdens in times of economic hardship. These women face more forms of discrimination outside the home than women from male-headed households. They have fewer customary rights but greater freedom of movement and more opportunities for paid employment. The authors go on to show that the benefits of government development programs have not reached remote areas. The trickle-down approach has not worked, but sustainable development programs focusing on women's development and self-responsiblity have helped to lift the economic status of women in general and FHHs in particular.
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A Worldwide Perspective
Socioeconomic Status of Third World Women with Reference
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access to resources adult male Agarwal agricultural Bhutan Buvinic Chapter chores common access common property resources contribute CPRs cultural daughters-in-law development programs dominate economic development economic stress employment family members family unit female headship female labor female-headed households Female-supported households females from MHHs Feminist Majority Foundation FHHs MHHs fieldwork survey undertaken gender government entitlements greater Hariharpur household heads Household Members Household Weekly Income Households in Rangabelia increased Jaspur Krishna Kumari labor force land landless less loans male-headed and female-headed Midnapur region Noponen occupations out-migration Pakhira village Rangabelia Pakistan poor poorer population poverty purdah Rangabelia and Midnapur relative resource base restrictions Roy and Tisdell rural areas rural development rural women sector Shiva social socioeconomic spouses status of FHHs status of women Sundarbans surveyed villages survival strategies Table Third World Third World women trickle-down approach undertaken in January UNDP unpaid village Rangabelia region wage labor West Bengal