An introduction to astronomy (Google eBook)

Front Cover
The Macmillan Company, 1918 - Astronomy - 577 pages
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Contents

CHAPTER U THE EARTH
20
Astronomical problems respecting the earth
26
Proofs of the earths sphericity
31
Size and shape of the earth
33
The theoretical shape of the earth
38
Different kinds of latitude
39
Historical sketch on the shape of the earth
40
The Mass op the Earth and the Condition op its Interior 19 The principle by which mass is determined
43
The mass and density of the earth
45
2123 Methods of determining the density of the earth
46
ARTS PAGE 24 Temperature and pressure in the earths interior
51
Proofs of the earths rigidity and elasticity
52
Historical sketch on the mass and rigidity of the earth
62
The Earths Atmosphere 28 Composition and mass of the earths atmosphere
64
2931 Methods of determining height of the atmosphere
65
The kinetic theory of gases
68
The escape of atmospheres
69
Effects of the atmosphere on climate
71
Importance of the constitution of the atmosphere
72
R61e of the atmosphere in life processes
74
The twinkling of the stars
76
CHAPTER III
77
Circumpolar star trails Ritchey
78
The laws of motion
79
4143 Proofs of the earths rotation
82
Consequences of the earths rotation
85
Uniformity of the earths rotation
87
The variation of latitude
89
The precession of the equinoxes and nutation
92
The Revolution of the Earth 48 Relative motion of the earth with respect to the sun
96
4952 Proofs of the revolution of the earth
98
Shape of the earths orbit
102
Motion of the earth in its orbit
103
Inclination of the earths orbit
105
The cause of the seasons
107
Relation of altitude of pole to latitude of observer
108
The suns diurnal circles
109
Hours of sunlight in different latitudes
111
The lag of the seasons
112
Effect of eccentricity of earths orbit on seasons
113
Historical sketch of the motions of the earth
115
Reference Points and Lines arts page 63 Object and character of reference points and lines
121
The geographical system
122
The horizon system
123
The equator system
125
The ecliptic system
127
Finding the altitude and azimuth
130
Finding the right ascension and declination
133
Other problems of position
135
The 40inch telescope of the Yerkes Observatory
138
CHAPTER V
139
Star catalogues
141
The magnitudes of the stars
142
The firstmagnitude stars
143
The firstmagnitude stars
144
Number of stars in first six magnitudes
145
The Milky Way or Galaxy
146
The constellations and their positions Maps
147
Finding the pole star
149
Units for estimating angular distances
150
The sickle in Leo Hughes Yerkes Observatory
157
Great Andromeda Nebula Ritchey Yerkes Observatory
158
The Pleiades Wallace Yerkes Observatory
161
Orion Hughes Yerkes Observatory
163
Great Orion Nebula Ritchey Yerkes Observatory
164
85101 Ursa Major Cassiopeia Locating the equinoxes Lyra Hercules Scorpius Corona Borealis Bootes Leo An dromeda Perseus Auriga Taurus Orion ...
165
On becoming familiar with the stare
167
CHAPTER VI
169
The practical measure of time
170
Sidereal time
171
ARTS TAB 106 Solar time
172
Mean solar time
175
The equation of time
176
Standard time
177
Distribution of time
179
Civil and astronomical days
181
114116 Sidereal anomalistic and tropical years
183
The calendar
184
Finding the day of week on any date
185
CHAPTER VII
188
The moons synodical and sidereal periods
189
The phases of the moon
190
The diurnal circles of the moon
192
The distance of the moon
194
The dimensions of the moon
196
The moons orbit with respect to earth and sun
197
The mass of the moon
198
The rotation of the moon
200
The librations of the moon
201
The density and surface gravity of the moon
202
The question of the moons atmosphere
203
Light and heat received from the moon
204
The temperature of the moon
205
134138 The surface of the moon
207
Moon at 9f days Ritchey Yerkes Observatory
208
The Crater Theophilus Ritchey Yerkes Observatory
210
Great Crater Clavius Ritchey Yerkes Observatory
212
The full moon Wallace Yerkes Observatory
215
Effects of the moon on the earth
217
140142 Eclipses of the moon and sun
218
CHAPTER VIII
226
Relative dimensions of the planetary orbits
227
ARTS PAGE 145 Keplers laws of motion
229
The law of gravitation
230
Isaac Newton Collection of David Eugene Smith
232
The conic sections
234
The question of other laws of force
236
Perturbations
237
The discovery of Neptune
238
William Herschel Collection of David Eugene Smith
239
John Couch Adams Collection of David Eugene Smith
240
The problem of three bodies
241
Cause of the tides
242
Masses of celestial bodies
244
Surface gravity of celestial bodies
245
Okbits Dimensions and Masses of the Planets 156 Finding the dimensions of the solar system
246
Elements of the orbits of the planets Table
248
Elements of the orbits of the planets
249
Dimensions and masses of the planets Table
255
Dates of eastern elongation and opposition
256
The planetoids
257
Trail of Planetoid Egeria Parkhurst Yerkes Observatory
259
The question of undiscovered planets
261
The rotation of Mars
274
Mars Barnard Yerkes Observatory
275
The albedo and atmosphere of Mars
276
The polar caps and temperature of Mars
277
The canals of Mars
283
Explanations of the canals of Mars
285
Mars Mount Wilson Solar Observatory
286
Jupiters satellite system
289
Discovery of the velocity of light
291
Surface markings and rotation of Jupiter
292
Jupiter E C Slipher Lowell Observatory
295
Thysical condition and seasons of Jupiter
296
Saturn 181 Saturns satellite system
297
182184 Saturns ring system 299304
299
Saturn Barnard Yerkes Observatory
301
Surface markings and rotation of Saturn
305
Physical condition and seasons of Saturn
306
Atmospheres and albedoes of Uranus and Neptune
307
Physical conditions of Uranus and Neptune
308
CHAPTER X
311
Brooks Comet Barnard Yerkes Observatory
312
The orbits of comets
313
The dimensions and masses of comets 316
316
Families of comets
318
The capture of comets
320
On the origin of comets
322
Theories of comets tails
323
Delavans Comet Barnard Yerkes Observatory
325
The disintegration of comets
327
Historical comets
328
Enckos Comet Barnard Yerkes Observatory
329
Halleys comet
332
Morehouses Comet Barnard Yerkes Observatory
333
Halleys Comet Barnard Yerkes Observatory
335
Meteors 202 Meteors or shooting stars
337
The number of meteors
338
Meteoric showers
339
ARTS PAGE 206 Connection between comets and meteors
341
Effects of meteors on the solar system
343
Long Island Kan meteorite Farrington
344
Theories respecting the origin of meteors
345
CHAPTER XI
349
Amount of energy received from sun
350
Sources of energy used by man
351
Amount of energy radiated by sun
353
The temperature of the sun
354
Principle of the conservation of energy
355
Theories of the suns heat 866359
358
Past and future of sun on contraction theory
360
Spectrum Analysis 220 The nature of light
365
On the production of light
366
Spectroscopes and the spectrum
369
223226 The laws of spectrum analysis 371375
371
The Constitution of the
377
Outline of the suns constitution
378
The photosphere
379
229231 Sunspots distribution periodicity and motions 381384
381
The rotation of the sun
388
Rotation of the sun in different latitudes
389
The reversing layer
390
Chemical constitution of reversing layer
392
The chromosphere and prominences 394
394
The spectroheliograph
398
The corona
401
The elevenyear cycle
404
CHAPTER XII
407
Value of a theory of evolution
408
Outline of growth of doctrine of evolution
410
General evidences of orderly development
413
Distribution of mass in the solar system
414
Distribution of moment of momentum
416
Distribution of moment of momentum in solar system
417
The energy of the solar system
419
Outline of the planetesimal theory
421
Examples of planetesimal organization
422
Suggested origin of spiral nebulae
424
Distances of ejection for various initial velocities
428
The origin of planets
431
The planes of the planetary orbits
433
The eccentricities of the planetary orbits
434
The rotation of the sun
436
The rotation of the planets
437
The origin of satellites
440
The rings of Saturn
441
The planetoids and zodiacal light
442
The future of the solar system
443
Historical Cosmogonies 261 The hypothesis of Kant
446
The hypothesis of Laplace
449
Tidal forces and tidal evolution 452
452
Effects of tides on motions of the moon
456
Tidal evolution of the planets
460
CHAPTER XIII
463
Number of stars of various magnitudes
464
Numbers of stars in magnitudes 5 to 17
466
Apparent distribution of the stars
470
Distribution of the stars with respect to the Galaxy
471
Form and structure of the Milky Way
473
Distances and Motions of the Stars 272 Direct parallaxes of nearest stars
476
Table of nineteen nearest stars
478
Distances of stars from proper motions and radial velocities
481
Motion of sun with respect to stars
482
Distances of stars from motion of sun
484
Kapteyns results on distances of stars
486
Distances of moving groups of stars
487
Star streams
490
On the dynamics of the stellar system
491
Runaway stars
498
Globular clusters
502
Double stars 605
505
Orbits and masses of binary stars
507
Binary stars whose masses are known
509
Spectroscopic binary stars 610
510
287293 Variable stars of various types 615
523
The spectra of the stars
527
Phenomena associated with spectral types
530
On the evolution of the stars
533
Tacit assumptions of theories of stellar evolution 634
543
On the infinity of the physical universe in space and in time
548
Irregular nebulae
550
Spiral nebulae
554
Ring nebulae
560
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