In Germ Theory and Its Applications to Medicine, biologist and chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-95) describes the discoveries in microbiology that were the foundation of modern immunology. His work also aided the food and textile industries, and he remains among the world's most celebrated scientists. The process to remove harmful germs from milk and other beverages by heating them is called pasteurization in his honor.
From Pasteur's theories, surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912) discovered the principle of antisepsis, which he describes in On the Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery. By using carbolic acid in conjunction with heat sterilization of surgical instruments, Lister determined that postoperative illness and fatality dramatically decreased. He also developed absorbable ligatures and the drainage tube, both of which remain in use for wounds and incisions. Listerine is named for this famous doctor.
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