Sword & Salve

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Rowman & Littlefield, Jan 1, 2006 - Political Science - 272 pages
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Arguing forcefully that changing times are a clarion call for new thinking, this book convincingly shows that if humanitarian organizations continue to operate as they have in the past, they will fail to help the very victims whom they try to save. Focusing especially on the emergence of 'new wars, ' Hoffman and Weiss insist that humanitarian organizations must recognize that they live in a political world and that their actions and goals are invariably affected by military action. The brand of warfare that erupted in the 1990s-marked by civil or transnational armed conflicts featuring potent non-state actors, altered political economies, a high proportion of civilian casualties, and a globalized media-produced horrors that shocked consciences and led humanitarian agencies to question their unyielding stance of neutrality and impartiality. Indeed, in a departure from earlier norms and practices, some have reinvented their policies and tools and created 'new humanitarianisms.' This authoritative book traces the evolution of the international humanitarian system from its inception in the 1860s, parses the dynamics of war and emergency response from the 1980s through the current disasters in Afghanistan and Iraq, and provides a strategic roadmap for practitioners. By bringing historical perspective to bear, this volume provides an invaluable analytical framework for grasping the nature of humanitarian crises and how agencies can respond strategically rather than reactively to change. Students will find its blend of clearly presented theory and case studies a powerful tool for understanding the roles of state and non-state actors in international relations. By charting the tides of continuity and change, this book will prepare agencies to dodge both figurative and actual bullets that threaten humanitarian action at the outset of the millennium.
  

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Contents

Concepts and Connections of War and Humanitarianism
9
The Lexicon
10
Triggering Crises and Eliciting Responses
12
Change and Continuity in War and Humanitarianism
15
Putting the Lenses Together
21
Foundations
25
The Rise of Interstate War
26
The Birth of the International Humanitarian System
35
The Panacea of Coordination
121
Cooperation Centralization and Integration
125
Divergent Perceptions of Needs Priorities and Sequences
128
Difference in Tactical Engagements
129
The Value of Independent and Diverse Operations
131
Institutional Rivalries
132
Collective Pursuits and Atomized Action
135
Making Sense of Afghanistan and Iraq
139

The Founding Era in Historical Perspective
46
New Wars
53
So Whats New?
57
A New Locus
59
New Agents
64
New Economies
68
New Targets and Victims
72
New Technologies
75
New Media Power
77
New Wars in Historical Perspective
78
New Humanitarianisms
81
So Whats New?
83
Creating Space and Access
89
Negotiating Access with Agents
94
Economies of War Economies of Aid
104
The Responsibility to Protect War Victims and Aid Personnel
108
Taming Deadly Technologies
112
Maximizing Media Attention to Humanitarian Crises
113
New Humanitarianisms in Historical Perspective
116
Humanitarianism and Collective Action
119
So Whats Really New?
143
Humanitarian Crises in Afghanistan and Iraq
153
Hybrid Wars on Terrorism and for Empire
157
Al Qaeda as Spoiler and Hostile Aid Recipients
161
Big Business in Oil War and Reconstruction
164
Conspicuous Economic Interests in Relief and Protection
167
Acute Security Threats to Aid Personnel and Journalists
171
High Technology versus HighEnough Technology
175
The International Spotlight
176
The Collective and Cumulative Challenges of Turf Wars
179
Humanitarian Strategic Thinking and Doing
183
The Case for Strategic Thinking and Doing
184
Military Institutions versus Humanitarian Agencies
189
Humanitarian Power and Position
199
Sharpening Strategies and Crafting Capacities
202
Soothing Tomorrows Wars with Stronger Salves?
207
Notes
215
Index
249
About the Authors
259
Copyright

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About the author (2006)

Peter J. Hoffman teaches at Berks Career and Technology Center West in Leesport, Pennsylvania. He has an Associate in Applied Sciences Degree in Machine Tool Technology from the Pennsylvania College of Technology, Vocational Education Level II certification from Temple University, and National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS) Level II certifications.

Weiss is distinguished professor of political science at the Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York.

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