A Manual of Civil Engineering (Google eBook)

Front Cover
C. Griffin, limited, 1907 - Civil engineering - 822 pages
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Contents

Information on Plan
13
Information on Section
14
Bench Marks
15
Arrangement of the ensuing Chapters
16
Op Surveying with the Chain
17
Structure and Use of the Chain and Arrows
18
Chaining on a Declivity
20
Offsets CrossStaff Optical Square OffsetStaffTape line
21
Oblique Offsets Surveying Buildings
23
Gaps in Stationlines
25
FieldBook
30
Sheets
31
Plotting DistancesOffsets
32
DetailsBook of Reference
33
Summary of Trigonometrical For mula useful in Surveying
36
Structure of the Theodolite
58
Measuring Horizontal Angles by the Theodolite
61
The Sextant and other Reflecting Instruments
63
Use of the SextantReduction
67
of Angles to a Horizontal Plane
69
Great Traversing Survey 42 Finding the Meridian
71
Plotting and Protracting
74
Traversing on a Small Scale
75
Plotting by Rectangular Coordi nates or Northings Southings Eastings and Westings
76
The PlaneTable Chapter IV Of Levelling
77
Settingout a Line of 48 Structure of the SpiritLevel
82
The Levelling Staff 50 Adjustments of the Level
83
Use of the Level
85
Corrections for Curvature and Refraction
88
Level FieldBook
89
Plotting a Section 55 Levelling by the Theodolite Altitudes and Depressions
90
Detached LevelsFeatures of the Country
92
ContourLinesHillshading 60 CrossSections
97
Art Page
99
Of Distributed Forcescont
108
Nickingout
110
Of Marine Surveying for Engineering Purposes
117
The Wate Level 76 77
123
Of Copying Enlarging and Reducing Plans
125
OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES
131
Resolution of a Force
137
00
160
Parallel Projection of Distributed
170
91
176
95
177
97
178
Truss
183
Suspension Bridge with Sloping
191
Centre of Gravity of a Flexible
199
Distorted Elliptic Rib
206
Transformed Hydrostatic
217
Art Pa
241
strength
259
Beams
281
Continuous Girders
287
Of Earthwork
315
Mensuration of Earth
324
Equalizing Earthwork
333
202
342
Strength of Stones
360
Compressed Bricks 867
367
Of Ordinary Foundations
377
Construction of Stone Mascnry continued
382
Art Pace 241 Masonry Classed
383
Ashlar Masonry 884
384
BlockinCourse Masonry 886
386
Common Rubble Masonry
387
String Courses and Copes
388
Pointing
389
Instruments used in Bnilding
391
Constructionof Brickwork 254 General Principles
393
Bond in Brickwork 894
394
Hoop Iron Bond
395
Mensuration of Brickwork
396
Stability of a Verticalfaced Buttress with Horizontal Beds 899
399
Stability of Retaining or Revte ment Walls in General
401
J67 Stability of Batteringfaced Re taining Walls
405
Stability of Battering Walls of Uniform Thickness
406
2C9 Counterforts
407
Surcharged Retaining Wall
408
Art Pact 27 Construction of Retaining Walls
409
LandTies for Retaining Walla
410
Struts for Retaining Walla
411
Relieving Arches
412
Of Stone and Brick Arches 276 General Structure of Arches of Stone
413
Circular Arch not less than a Quadrant
422
Stability of an Unloaded Arch Ring
424
Circular Arch less than Quadrant
425
Abttment in Radiating Courses
428
Ribbed Arches Abutments and Piers
429
Ribbed Skew Arches
432
a Underground Arches Tunnels Culverts 488
435
a List ot Authorities on Masonry
436
Of Timber 299 Structure of Timber
437
TimberTrees Classed Pine wood Leafwood
439
Appearance of Good Timber
441
Examples of PinewoodPine Fir Larch Cowrie Cedar c
442
Examples of LeafwoodOak Beech Alder Plane Sycamore
443
Leafwood continuedChesnut
444
Ash Elm
445
bark BlueGum Jarrah c
446
Age and Season for Felling TimberSquaring
447
Durability and Decay of Timber
449
Art Pane
450
813
459
BridgeTrusses
475
Timber Arches
481
Cast Iron
498
Wrought Iron
505
Resilience of Iron and Steel
513
Castiron Struts and Pillars 620
521
Effect of Wind on Tubular
537
Art Page
584
Drifts Mines or Headings 694
595
Of Timber Iron and Sub
601
OF COMBINED STRUCTURES
619
Art
621
Breadth and Crosssection
626
Of Tramways
632
Of the Collection Conveyance and Distribution of Water Section I Theory of the Flow of Water or of Hydraulics Art Paice 413 Pressure of Water He...
672
Greatest and Least Velocities
673
General Principles of Steady Flow
674
Friction of Water
677
Contraction of Stream from Ori ficeCoefficientsofDischarge
679
Discharge from Vertical Orifices Notches and Sluices
681
Computation of the Discharge and Diameters of Pipes
684
Discharge and Dimensions of Channels
686
in Iron Bridges
688
Elevation produced by a Weir
689
Stream of Unequal Sections
690
Time of Emptying a Reservoir
691
Of the Measurement and Estimation of Water 456 Sources of Water in General Rainfall Total and Available
692
the Flow of Streams
696
Ordinary Flow and Floods 69S 459 Measurement of Flow in Pipes Water Meters
699
ReservoirSites
701
Land Awash
702
Appendages of Store Reservoirs
704
Reservoir Walls
707
Art Page 468 Regime or Stability of a Water Channel
708
Protection of RiverBanks
710
Improvement of RiverChannels
712
Weirs
713
River Bridges
717
ArtinVialWaterChanuelsCon duits
718
Junctions of WaterChannels
719
Aqueduct Bridges
720
PipeTrack PipeAqueducts
723
Of Systems of Drainage 479 General Principles as to Land Drainage
724
Discharging Capacity of Branch Drains
725
Action of Channels and Flooded Lands as Reservoirs
726
Tidal Drainagesee also p 741
728
Sewers
729
Of Systems of Water Supply 489 Irrigation
730
Estimation of Demand as to Head
732
StorageWorks
733
Springs
734
River WorksPumping 496 Wells
736
Purity of Water
737
Settling and Filtration 499 Distributing Basins or Town Reservoirs
738
DistributingPipes
739
A Authorities on Water Supply
740
Of Canals 501 Canals ClassedSelection Line and Levels
742
Form and Dimensions of Water 7 608 Construction of a Canal of
743
Canal AqueductsBridges and Tunnels 605 Moveable Bridges 606 Canal Looks 607 Inclined Planes and Lifts on Canals 743 I 608 Water Supply of C...
745
Motion of Waves see also p 7 66
753
Action of Tides on Coasts
759
APPENDIX
767
Towers and Chimneys 777
777
ADDENDA
789
Article 410 p 615 Dredgers
797

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 349 - Geological Classification. The geological position of rocks has but little connection with their properties as building materials. As a general rule, the more ancient rocks are the stronger and the more durable ; but to this there are many exceptions. According to the usual geological classification, rocks are divided into igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
Page 384 - Rankine'e rule for the proportion of stones : " In order that the stones may not be liable to be broken across, no stone of a soft material, such as the weaker kinds of sandstone and granular limestone, should have a length greater than 3 times its depth. In harder materials the length may be 4 or 5 times the depth. The breadth in soft material may range from lj time to double the depth; in hard materials it may be 3 times the depth.
Page 318 - THEOREM I. It is necessary to the stability of a granular mass, that the direction of the pressure between the portions into which it is divided by any plane should not at any point make with the normal to that plane an angle exceeding the angle of repose.
Page 362 - ... fire-stones. A good fire-stone should be infusible, and not liable to crack or exfoliate from heat. Stones that contain lime or magnesia are usually unsuitable. Also, silicates containing an oxide of iron. Their durability under such circumstances should be considered when selecting them for building. The only sure test, however, of the durability of any kind of stone is its wear, as shown by experience. 34-. Expansion of Stone from Heat. Experiments have been made in this country and Great...
Page 278 - The contingency of the sudden application of a moving load is provided for by the factor of safety, which expresses the ratio of the proof load to the working load (Article 247). The action of the rolling load to which a railway bridge is subjected is intermediate between that of an absolutely sudden load and a perfectly gradual load. It has been investigated mathematically by Mr. Stokes, and experimentally by Captain Galton, and the results are given in the Report of the Commissioners on the Application...
Page 410 - ... by efficient drainage, one way of making provision to resist the additional pressure which may arise from such saturation is to calculate the requisite thickness of wall, as if the earth were a fluid, making if> (the angle of repose) = fc> in the formulae.
Page 317 - The properties of earth with respect to adhesion and friction are so variable that the engineer should never trust to tables or to information obtained from books to guide him in designing earthworks, when he has it in his own power to obtain the necessary data, either by observation of existing earthworks in the same stratum, or by experiment.
Page 409 - The objects of this are, at once to distribute the pressure over a greater area than that of any bed-joint in the body of the wall, and to diffuse that pressure more equally, by bringing the centre of resistance nearer to the middle of the base than it is in the body of the wall. The power of earth to support foundations has already been considered in Article 199.
Page 507 - ... bubbling or agitation ; but a larger proportion is not to be used, as it would make the steel brittle. The presence of manganese in the iron, or its introduction into the crucible or vessel in which steel is made, improves the steel by increasing its toughness and making it easier to weld and forge. Steel is distinguished by the property of tempering; that is to say, it can be hardened by sudden cooling from a high temperature, and softened by gradual cooling; and its degree of hardness or softness...
Page 136 - Lami's Theorem. If three forces acting on a particle keep it in equilibrium, each is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two.

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