Ancient Indian coinage: a systematic study of money economy from janapada period to early medieval period (600 BC to AD 1200)
Money is unmistakably a landmark invention - considering its indispensable role in economics and, more specially, in the commercial sphere of man's existence anywhere in the world. However, we have yet to have final answers to some of the fundamental questions: When, where, and how was money - shaped as `coins' or as `pieces of stamped metal' - first introduced to human civilization? Its genesis in India is traced back to the sixth century BC: during the second urban revolution, when coins came to be manufactured here independently, indigenously. Analysing in depth an astonishing mass of numismatic and kindred data, published in different catalogues, archaeological reports, journals and elsewhere, this book investigates the evolution of ancient India's economy: in terms of its `coinage', through six successive periods: janapada, Maurya, post-Maurya, Gupta, post-Gupta, and pre-medieval - which, in their togetherness, span nearly two millennia. Covering the entire subcontinental sprawl, Dr. Jain considers the whole variety of coins: local, universal standard, and even foreign, with meticulous descriptions of coin types, symbols, legends, fabric and metrology. In her thematic effort to reconstruct the history of ancient Indian coinage (and, thus, money economy), from its first beginnings in high antiquity to about the twelfth century AD, the author has drawn on wide-ranging primary and secondary sources. And has also tried to establish linkages between the different ancient coins and their references/descriptions in Vedic/Buddhist/Jaina texts, Panini's Astadhyayi, Kautilya's Arthasastra, epical literature, Dharmasastras, foreigners' travelogues, old-world mathematical treatises, and numerous contemporary inscriptions, among others writings.
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Money Economy During Janapada Period
Money Economy During Mauryan Period
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ancient India Andhra Arthasastra Bactria Bactrian Buddhaghosa bull Calcutta Calukyas Candragupta cast coins century bc coin type coinage coins bear coins weigh coins were issued copper copper coins cowries currency debased Delhi denominations die-striking die-struck drachm drammas dynasty elephant empire Eucratides fabric fifth century gadyana Gandhara Gangeyadeva gold and silver gold coins grains Greek Gupta period hoard Ibid Indian coinage Indian Coins Indo-Bactrian Indo-Greek inscriptions issued coins Janapada Janapada period Jataka JNSI Kaniska karsapana Kautilya Kharosthi Kidara king Kosala Kujula Kadphises Kumaragupta large number legend Magadha Malwa marked coins masaka Mauryan period mentioned metal minted monetary money economy Nahapana niska Numismatics obverse pana Post-Mauryan period punch Rajasthan refers region reign reverse Roman coins rulers Saka Samudragupta Sassanian Satakarni satamana Satavahana second century silver and copper silver coins silver punch-marked coins Siva Skandagupta Surasena suvarna symbols Taxila trade tree in railing type of coins uninscribed coins weight standard western Ksatrapas