Who Owns the Past?: Cultural Policy, Cultural Property, and the Law

Front Cover
Kate Fitz Gibbon
Rutgers University Press, 2005 - Social Science - 362 pages
2 Reviews
Public and private institutions in the United States have long been home to a variety of art works, antiquities, and ethnological materials. For years, these collections have been seen as important archives that allow present and future generations to enjoy, appreciate, and value the art of all cultures. The past decade, however, has seen major changes in law and public policy and an active, ongoing debate over legal and ethical issues affecting the ownership of art and other cultural property. Contributors to Who Owns the Past? includes legal scholars, museum professionals, anthropologists, archaeologists, and collectors. In clear, nontechnical language, they provide a comprehensive overview of the development of cultural property law and practices, as well as recent case law affecting the ability of museums and private collectors to own art from other countries.
  

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Though I am constitutionally sympathetic to arguments that no single group, however it has suffered, can claim to own portions of human heritage, this book mostly managed to push me in the opposite ... Read full review

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台史博讀書會書摘
Who owns the past?: cultural policy, cultural property, and the law
作者:Kate Fitz Gibbon,American Council for Cultural Policy
Introduction 重點整理
xiii.
1. 文化資產與藏品的價值為何?
2. 美國文資法對擁有外國文物的相關規定與作法
3. 聯合國教科文組織1970對於非法取得文物交易的規範與前提:the interchange of cultural property among nations for scientific, cultural and educational purposes increases the knowledge of the civilization of Man, enriches the cultural life of all people and inspires mutual respect and appreciation among nations.
4. 本書的出版目的:
以提供有關法律上、實務上及實際論爭新的資訊鼓勵以擴大討論此議題,並批判性的檢驗使得這些討論失焦的情感性因素。(xiv)
5. 本書內容:
Part I.各國文資法概要 LAW
Part II. 收藏與交易COLLECTING AND TRADE
Part III. 瀕危的藝術ART IN PERIL
Part IV. 各樣的博物館THE UNIVERSAL MUSEUM
Kate Fitz Gibbon:有關從帕特農神殿運到大英博物館典藏的艾爾金大理石的辯論。
Merryman:「文物的合法買賣」:討論聯合國教科文組織的「反交易」迷思
Kate Fitz Gibbon:文物輸出管理機制
Erich Theophile and Cynthia Rosenfeld 與 Emma C. Bunker 都在討論有關文物歸屬的問題,討論範圍涵蓋的古物販子,收藏家,博物館,考古學家等等眾多相關人物的角色。
結論:由ACCP(備註1)委員會提出的結論: 應以修訂新法已改善目前自相衝突的法律來打擊目前的不法交易困境。
備註1
American Council for Cultural Policy (ACCP) was formed by a group of politically influential antiquities dealers, collectors and lawyers in the United States, with its headquarters in New York and representatives in Washington D.C.
The original goal of this organization was to allow legally excavated archaeological artifacts to be circulated freely and legitimately. ACCP's treasurer William Pearlstein has famously described Middle Eastern cultural heritage laws (especially those of Iraq) as "retentionist" and expressed a desire for the possibility of the free circulation of antiquities
Some Archaeologists, academics, and cultural heritage lawyers have found such declarations worrisome, since the members of ACCP are politically influential figures. Archaeological Institute of America's code of ethics maintain that its members "refuse to participate in the trade in undocumented antiquities and refrain from activities that enhance the commercial value of such objects. Undocumented antiquities are those which are not documented as belonging to a public or private collection before December 30, 1970 when the AIA Council endorsed the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Property, or which have not been excavated and exported from the country of origin in accordance with the laws of that country." (Source: AIA official webpage) It is widely believed by many academics that the trade and collectorship of antiquities fuel the looting and destruction of archaeological sites around the world.
Alternative to Embargo (P.291-303)
1. 目前古物買賣市場以處罰買主的方式並無法真正喝止文物非法交易
2. 目前制度的優點( P291第三段)
3. 然而目前花在保護遺產現址的費用與防止到賣古物的預算不成比例
4. 各國文資法對於文物出口與進口的相關規定
甲、 加拿大
乙、 英國
丙、 日本
丁、 韓國
5. 文化資產與國家獨立、國家認同的關係是息息相關的
6. 與其消極的禁止文物輸出不如建構文物輸出評鑑機制與資料庫平台
7. 「Art-rich and Cash-poor」,這些鑑定機制如何回饋給文物輸出國
甲、 鑑價費用回饋
乙、 文物優先收藏權
丙、 資料庫資料使用回饋金
丁、 版權金回饋
8. 相關文物資料庫案例:荷蘭的KIT、祕魯由IBM發起的典藏行政相關軟體研究開發、GEH與ICP的跨館典藏資料計畫、台灣的ETAIWAN數位典藏計
 

Contents

A Historical Perspective
133
Archaeology and the Art Market
221
Observations of a Combatant
231
THE UNIVERSAL MUSEUM
267
A Licit International Trade in Cultural Objects JOHN HENRY MERRYMAN
269
Alternatives to Embargo KATE FITZ GIBBON
291
The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Trust ERICH THEOPHILE CYNTHIA ROSENFELD
305
The Acquisition and Ownership of Antiquities in Todays Age of Transition EMMA C BUNKER
311
Museums at the Center of Public Policy ACCP EDITORIAL BOARD
319
APPENDICES AND LINKS
329
Japans Protection of Its Cultural HeritageA Model
331
Cultural Property Information Resources
341
Contributors
347
Index
355
Copyright

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About the author (2005)

Kate Fitz Gibbon is a consultant on cultural property and a specialist in central Asian art. She lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

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