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a-stem abstract nouns added adjectives affix anunasika anuswara Apabhransa Aryan barytone becomes Bengali Bengali and Oriya Bhojpuri Bidyapati Brahmans case-affixes case-endings case-particles causal Chand common compound consonant dative declension derived from Skr dialect diminutive elided existence feminine fern final vowel genitive Gipsy grammar grammatical gender Gujarati Hindi Indian instances instrumental latter lengthened locative long vowel Maharashtri Marathi masc masculine meaning merely modern languages neuter nominative nouns ending numerous oblique form Old-H Old-Hindi older form origin Orissa Oriya oxytone Panjabi particles peculiar phonetic possession Prakrit Prakrit form pratyaya probably pronoun rejected retain Sanskrit secondary formations semivowel sense seven languages short vowel shortened Sindhi Sing singular substantive suffix syllable synthetical Tadbhavas Tatsamas termination three genders Trumpp Tulsi Das verb Verbal root vulgar wife words ending
Page iii - BEAMES. — A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE MODERN ARYAN LANGUAGES OF INDIA, to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bengali.
Page 226 - Oriya, and the difiiculty of the inquiry is that we cannot find it. We may, however, guess at it, and there are scintillations afforded us out of the gloom of Indian history which confirm our guesses, till at some points they almost touch on certainty. The first of these is the fact, now almost beyond a doubt, of the very modern character of Bengali. The earliest writers in that language, the Vaishnava poets, use a language so much akin to Bhojpuri and the dialects spoken in the eastern parts of...
Page 234 - ... language, and to it may be ascribed numberless eccentricities in the vulgar speech. Parts of the verb ho are used in the other languages as case-signs. Thus Bengali uses its infinitive (originally a locative of the present participle...
Page 239 - Bengali and Oriya do not change the form of the adjective at all, whether for gender or case ; the adjective is placed just before the substantive, and one case-ending does for both. Hindi gives to those adjectives which end in a, a feminine in I, and an oblique singular in e, but does not make use of the oblique form of the plural. Thus one would say ^iT% ^ft% ^iT "of a black horse," and not qft<$ff vft^' ^iT "of black horses,
Page 281 - Having left the waves of Ganges, he goes on to the bank and drinks from a well." — Narsingh Meheta in Eavya-d. U. 4. It is a well-known and frequently used affix in Gujarati. To complete the range of illustrations, I may add here a remark which was accidentally omitted from its right place a page or two back, that Bidyapati's genitive in qs, formed by omitting the TJ; of oR^; , is also found in Old-Hindi.
Page 212 - Prakrit oblique of such nouns would end in ihi, ahi; but the i and a belong to the stem, not to the termination ; and when the hi is rejected, there remains nothing, so that the oblique cannot undergo any change. Nouns in long i and u add an a to the stem, which is again a relic of the common form ahi deprived of its final hi. Long before the epoch of the formation of these modern cases, the Prakrit had disencumbered itself of the habit of making an euphonic combination between the final vowel of...
Page 255 - ... .armpit," is in common daily use in the present day. It is a Tadbhava of somewhat later origin than those very early Tadbhavas which have given us the adverbs and case-affixes, and it is therefore no objection to this derivation that the case-affix should have undergone more change than the noun. As a parallel instance may be cited the adverbs like...