Ancient Trees, Living Landscapes
Over the last 25 years, archaeologists and historians have been increasingly aware of the importance of woodland in the developing British landscape - in particular, how trees have been a vital component of the living cultural landscape. Ancient Trees, Living Landscapes begins by questioning the myth that in prehistoric times Britain was swathed in a virtually impenetrable wildwood. In fact, from the earliest times woodland has been manipulated and transformed. The author then looks at Britain's great 'landmark trees', before examining the function of ancient trees and hedgerows in the landscape. The Middle Ages saw the multiplication of deer parks, with the special management needed to feed and shelter deer and to give cover to stalkers. These, with their lawns, groves and pollard-studded pastures, greatly influenced the great landscape parks of the eighteenth century, developed by Repton and Lancelot Brown. There are, too, important chapters on the life and work of the Men of the Forest, and on Woodlands of the Mind - the all-important symbolism of trees as well as their utilitarian function in Britain's landscape. Throughout the book Richard Muir, who describes himself as 'a Dalesman by birth, a Scot by inclination', gives equal weight to the evidence from the north of Britain, whereas earlier writers have concentrated on the south. In an age when institutional interests are increasingly pervasive, he stresses the importance of the work of the individual researcher and amateur enthusiast.
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Ancient trees and hedgerows
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Abbey aesthetic agistment alignments ancient trees animals assart associated bark beech boughs boundary Britain Castle cattle century charcoal charter common concerned coppice countryside cultural deer park derived earthworks emparking enclosures England English Epping Forest estates evidence example existed fallow deer farming farmsteads fell fence feudal field firs Forest of Knaresborough former Fountains Abbey frequently fuel gardens girth grazing greenwood groves growing Hampsthwaite hawthorn hedgerow pollards hedgerow trees hedges History holly hunting Ingilby Knaresborough land landmark trees landscape landscape history Lane livestock London lopped manorial maps medieval period Nidd Nidderdale normally North Yorkshire oak pollards pannage parkland pine place names planted plough pollards probably produced quoted Rackham recorded Ripley Roman royal rural Scotland Scottish settlement shelter shrubs sometimes species survived Swaledale sweet chestnut tenants territory thorn timber tradition trunk Tudor village wall Wensleydale West Yorkshire wild wood pasture woodland Yorkshire Dales