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H DIMENSIONS OF DECISION MAKING
MECHANICS OF JAPANESE DECISION MAKING
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alternatives approval authority center of gravity change reality chief executive officer choice circular approach circular process clique conceptual consensus context coordination Corporate Staff corporate structure corporate survival decided decision and execution decision process decision-making process delegation directors entire organization excluded Exhibit expected experience explicit expression Field Sales gekokujo human dynamics ideographs includes individual initiative involved IPPAN SHA-IN Japan Japanese corporations Japanese decision-making Japanese manager Japanese organization Japanese practice Japanese process kaigi kanri-sha keiei-sha kondan-kai labor labor union Learning linear approach linear process major management by participation MECHANISTIC ORGANIZATION mechanistic style Minus month motivation necessity non-supervisory open to external operations organic organization organic style personnel possibilities prerogative problem procedures purpose re-action reach a decision regular meetings remains result ringi ringi-sho sense situation SOPHIA UNIVERSITY specific style of organization superiors and subordinates symbolic responsibility Tokyo top management uchi-awase Western manager Western practice