In Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy in Materials Research
Klaus Wetzig, Dietrich Schulze
Wiley, May 9, 1995 - Science - 243 pages
The authors of this book give an instructive survey of the latest advancements in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). During the last two decades there has been a new stage in the development of scanning electron microscopes as they are equipped with special devices for in situ investigations. Thus a "microlab" now exists inside the electron microscope. Different in situ sample treatments, based on mechanical, thermal and electrical effects, as well as on surface modification by radiation and environmental interaction processes, can be used to quantitatively study reactions at solid surfaces under well-defined external conditions. The objects under investigation can be of many kinds: engineering materials, electrical and magnetic materials (as used in microelectronics), products of technical and chemical industries, minerals, forensic objects, textiles, pharmaceutical, biological and archaeological specimens.
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application backscattered electrons behaviour bending load cathodoluminescence coating composite contrast crack distance crack formation cross-section defect deformation delamination dependence depth detector device dislocations DLTS EBIC EBIC signal electrical electron beam energy density equation erosion etching evaporation example excess carrier experiments fibre field fine-grain graphite focused focused ion beam fracture function geometry goniometer grain graphite hardness heating indentation influence investigations ion bombardment Langmuir probe laser laser beam laser irradiation laser pulses layers magnetic material maximum measured mechanical metal micrographs micrometre microscope minority carrier mode nanometres observation optical parameters particles Phys plasma pressure primary electron probe Proc Q-switched range recombination region sample surface scanning electron microscopy schematic Schottky diode SDLTS secondary electrons semiconductor shown in Figure shows sintering space-charge spatial resolution specimen chamber sputtering stage steel stress structure substrate technique temperature tensile thermal thin topographic ultra-microhardness vacuum varistor Wetzig