Emigrants in Chains: A Social History of Forced Emigration to the Americas of Felons, Destitute Children, Political and Religious Non-Conformists, Vagabonds, Beggars and Other Undesirables, 1607-1776
In a story largely untold until now, Peter Coldham's groundbreaking study demonstrates once and for all that the recruitment of labour for the American colonies was achieved in large measure through the emptying of English prisons, workhouses, brothels, and houses of correction, as felons, rogues and social outcasts were transported fated to toil in the tobacco-growing colonies of Virginia and Maryland.
Supported by a massive array of documentary evidence and first-hand reports, the author lays the focus on the emergence and use of transportation as a means of dealing with an unwanted population, dwelling at length on the processes involved, the men charged with the administration of the system of transportation or engaged in transportation as a business, then proceeding with a fascinating look at the transportees themselves, their lives and hapless careers, and their reception in the colonies.
Few transportees contrived to return to their native country when their sentences expired, and it must be assumed that most such involuntary emigrants were assimilated into colonial society. Their untold story may lack the romance of the cavaliers of Virginia and Maryland - the heroic ring of a dispossessed aristocracy - but it has the stark accent of truth. This is a story to challenge common perceptions and attitudes about the peopling of the American colonies.
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The Convicts and Their Background
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Aberdeen aforesaid allowed America Mddx Bond Assize Bailey Sessions Papers Barbados Bristol brought Burstead Captain cargo City of London Colin Somervell colonies contract contractor convict ships court crew crime criminal Darby Lux Darby Lux Maryland death deck Elizabeth England English escape felons hanged indentured servants jail Jamaica John John Kidd Jonathan Forward Jonathan Wild justices Justitia labour land London Record Loney Virginia Lord Majesty's Master merchant Middlesex Moll Flanders Newgate Newgate prisoners obliged offenders Old Bailey Old Bailey Sessions pardon parish Parliament passengers plantations planters poor prisoners punishment received Record Office Reid reported reprieved returning from transportation robbery rogues Russell Maryland sailed Sargent sent sentenced shillings ship's slave sold stealing taken Thames thieves Thomas tobacco took trade transported felons Tryal Tyburn voyage whipping William women wrote