Advanced Router Architectures (Google eBook)

Front Cover
CRC Press, Nov 1, 2005 - Computers - 240 pages
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Routers, switches, and transmission equipment form the backbone of the Internet, yet many users and service technicians do not understand how these nodes really work.

Advanced Router Architectures addresses how components of advanced routers work together and how they are integrated with each other. This book provides the background behind why these building blocks perform certain functions, and how the function is implemented in general use. It offers an introduction to the subject matter that is intended to trigger deeper interest from the reader. The book explains, for example, why traffic management may be important in certain applications, what the traffic manager does, and how it connects to the rest of the router. The author also examines the implications of the introduction or omission of a traffic manager into an advanced router. The text offers a similar analysis for other router topics such as QOS and policy enforcement, security processing (including DoS/DDoS), and more.

This book covers which mandatory and which optional building blocks can be found in an advanced router, and how these building blocks operate in conjunction to ensure that the Internet performs as expected.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
Conclusion
5
Internet Topology Change
7
Traffic and Traffic Growth
10
Conclusion
14
The Carrier Business Model
15
Service Level Agreements SLAS
17
The VoIP Business Model
18
Internal Line Card To Switch Fabric Communication
124
Line Card To External Resources Communication
125
Line Card Functions for PSTN Internetworking
126
Definitions
127
Local Control Processors for Line or Processor Cards
128
Compute Efficiency
129
Conclusion
130
Switch Fabric Cards
133

Internal Corporate Accounting
19
Conclusion
20
Advanced Routers in Central Office Applications
21
Conclusion
25
Function Split
27
Traditional System Partitioning and Function Split
30
Functions within the Port Card
31
Functions within the Switch Card
32
Conclusion
33
High Availability
35
Network View of Redundancy and Failsafe Operation
39
Example
41
Design Life Time and Single Point of Failure Impact
44
1+1 Redundancy
45
1 Redundancy
46
2 out of 3 or N out of N+1 Redundancy
47
Redundant Switch Fabric Cards
48
Redundant Line Cards
50
Redundant Links
52
Redundant Power Supplies
55
Software Robustness
56
OAMP Control over Redundant Subsystems
58
Switchover on Demand
59
Conclusion
60
The Chassis
61
Singleboard versus Modular Designs
62
Power Supply Considerations
68
Singleboard Designs
70
Midplane Designs
71
The Card Cage
73
Power Supply Unit
75
Backplane Designs
76
Power Supply Unit
78
Conclusion
79
Line Cards
81
Definition
87
Functional Requirements
88
Data Loss And Higher Layers
103
Distribution Of Traffic
108
Traffic Manager Functions Versus Queue Manager Functions
110
Ingressside Traffic Management
111
Further Impact of Advanced Router Architectures
117
Differentiation of Functions
118
Line Card Implementation in Singleboard Designs
119
Backplane Designs
120
Line Card Messaging and Communications
122
Internal Line Card To Line Card Communication
123
History of routerinternal Interconnects
134
Basics
136
Externally Controlled Switches
140
The Scheduling Challenge
141
LCI
142
Shared Memory Switches
143
Combined Virtually Output Queued CVOQ Switch Fabrics
144
Easier Routing Of Traces On The Backplane
145
Less Incremental Cost For Upgrades
146
Net Bit Rate or Link Rate Utilization Minimum Maximum Average
147
Throughput Total and on a perLink Basis
148
System Uptime Minimum
150
Reliability Error Rate
151
Delay and Latency
152
RoundTrip Delay Minimum Maximum Average
153
Scalability
154
Field Upgradability
156
Cost Structure
157
Performance Extension
158
Nonblocking Multistage Switches
159
Load Sharing Across N Planes
160
MasterSlave or Performance Extension Architectures
161
Alternative Solutions
162
Payasyougrow Solutions
163
Multicast and Broadcast
168
Traffic Manager Functions versus Queue Manager Functions
169
Deterministic Behavior
170
Software Function Set in Local Switch Fabric Control
172
Conclusion
175
Operation Administration Maintenance and Provisioning
177
Definition of OAMP
178
Functions of the OAMP entity
179
Operational Statuses
181
Status Transitions
182
Example 2 For Status Transitions
183
Implementation
184
Failsafe and Faulttolerant OAMP
185
Software Implications
186
Encryption For NMCtoOAMP Traffic
189
Examples of Failure Modes of Managed Entities
190
The Necessity for the DeviceGlobal View
192
Sample OAMP Card Schematic
193
Conclusion
194
Glossary
195
References
213
Index
215
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