Study guide for Copi, Introduction to logic, fifth edition
Easy-to-read, visually appealing, and chock full of real-world applications, this most complete and authoritative book on introductory logic fully prepares users to understand, recognize, and apply classical syllogistic logic and the more powerful techniques of modern symbolic logic--explaining all concepts and techniques clearly, accurately, and thoroughly, and bringing them to life using a wealth of real-life examples of lively arguments and explanations drawn from a wide variety of sources to help demonstrate the application of logical principles by serious writers and thinkers trying to solve real problems in a wide range of fields. Includes full chapters on basic logical concepts, the uses of language, definitions, fallacies, categorical propositions, categorical syllogisms, arguments in ordinary language, symbolic logic, methods of deduction, quantification theory, analogy and probable inference, Mill's Methods of experimental inquiry, science and hypothesis, and probability. Reformulates key logical issues, and presents a more detailed account of the concept of logical equivalence, distinguishing it more clearly from the truth-functional connectives. Includes sidebars containing additional, enriching information; many new illustrations taken from contemporary research I the physical and biological science; and a plethora of exercises. For anyone searching for a top-notch, easy-to-understand introduction to logic.
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The Uses of Language
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ad hominem circumstantial answers antecedent circumstances argu argument form argument is valid Argumentum argumentum ad ignorantiam attribute categorical propositions class term compound statement connotation contraposition Converse accident deductive argument definition diagram disagreement in attitude disjunction empty entities example exercises on pages existential import explained F F F F T F fallacy false conclusion formal proof formula hypothesis Illicit Major Impl inductive lexical definition logically equivalent means ment Mill's Methods minor premiss mutually exclusive events non-P non-S obversion occur p v q particular predicate term premisses are true probability of drawing proof of validity q is false q is true READ PAGES rr rr selected exercises Simp SOLUTIONS to selected standard-form categorical syllogism statement form statement variables stipulative definition substitution instance symbol tion toss translation true premisses truth or falsity truth table truth values truth-functional tt tt validity or invalidity whereas words