Killing for Land in Early California: Indian Blood at Round Valley : Founding the Nome Cult Indian Farm

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Algora Publishing, 2005 - History - 284 pages
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This highly researched account shows how the California frontier wars allowed for the rise of a ranch economy for whites and a reservation system for the Native Americans. The Round Valley Federal Indian Reservation was founded in remote Mendocino County when California had only been a state for four short years and much of the northern half of the state was still virgin territory. American settlers, attracted by both the Gold Rush as well as their desire for a better life were rapidly filling in these supposedly unexplored areas. When the Mendocino War began in 1859, a state legislative committee of investigation went to Round Valley and recorded the official depositions of over thirty resident ranchers, reservation employees, and an Army officer. Few excerpts of those depositions and almost none of the Army reports have been published previously. These eyewitness accounts are reproduced here, augmented by personal letters, and provide a clear and damning picture of what happened and why vigilante parties of ranchers systematically set out to destroy whole tribes of California Indians from 1857 through 1863. Congress seemed to be on a different track in dealing with the California Indians than both the California state legislature and the Indian Affairs Department. The author emphasizes the vital role played by the US Army and how lack of funding and poor coordination of various levels of government resulted in disaster for the Indians. The records reveals a theme of cultural clashes. While Sub-Agent S.P. Storms started out in the summer of 1856 with the idea that the entire Round Valley would become reservation property, his superior at Indian Affairs began encouraging individualWhites to settle and establish farms and ranches there. This set up the dynamic forces of conflict that eventually led to numerous raids and massacres. As tensions rose, there was fighting between the first Army unit present in the region and the settlers, between the settlers and the Native Americans, between reservation employees and settlers, and eventually between the Army unit and Native Americans - who finally saw that the promise they would be provided for in exchange for their peaceful cooperation was tragically unfulfilled. * Frank H. Baumgardner holds an MA in American History from San Jose State University and did postgraduate work in history at University of California-Santa Barbara. He has taught American history and has published articles on the settling of coastal California in California Historian.
  

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Contents

Preface
1
Introduction
13
Chapter 1 The Yukis Meet White Men
18
Chapter 2 The Establishment of Nome Cult Farm
38
Conflicting Views of a Complicated Situation
50
Chapter 4 Gen Kibbes Expedition or the War with the Wintoons 18581859
70
Chapter 5 Vengeance and Taking the LandEden and Round Valleys 18591860
88
Chapter 6 The Woes of the Settlers and Ranchers
104
Chapter 10 The Rejected Majority Report 1860
177
The 1860 Congressional Debate and Kidnapping Native American Children
189
Chapter 12 Native Americans Retaliate
198
Chapter 13 Tension Mounts between Native Americans and Settlers
219
Chapter 14 Company F Occupies Round Valley and Declares Martial Law August 1862Spring 1863
227
Chapter 15 Further Injustice 18631864
248
Justifiable Conquest?
262
Appendices
275

Chapter 7 The Employees Depositions
135
Chapter 8 Depositions of the Soldiers
159
Chapter 9 Journalism of the Period and Round Valley in the 1860s
167

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