Radionuclides in the Environment (Google eBook)

Front Cover
David A. Atwood
John Wiley & Sons, Feb 19, 2013 - Science - 560 pages
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Nuclear energy is the one energy source that could meet the world's growing energy needs and provide a smooth transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the coming decades and centuries. It is becoming abundantly clear that an increase in nuclear energy capacity will, and probably must, take place.

However, nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for civilian and military purposes lead to extremely long-lived waste that is costly and highly problematic to deal with. Therefore, it is critically important ot understand the environmental implications of radionuclides for ecosystems and human health if nuclear energy is to be used to avoid the impending global energy crisis. The present volume of the EIC Books series addresses this critical need by providing fundamental information on environmentally significant radionuclides.

The content of this book was developed in collaboration with many of the authors of the chapters. Given the enormity of the subject the Editor and the Authors had to be judicious in selecting the chapters that would appropriately encompass and describe the primary topics, particularly those that are of importance to the health of ecosystems and humans. The resulting chapters were chosen to provide this information in a book of useful and appropriate length. Each chapter provides fundamental information on the chemistry of the radionuclides, their occurrence and movement in the enivornment, separation and analyses, and the technologies needed for their remediation and mitigation. The chapters are structured with a common, systematic format in order to facilitate comparions between elements and groups of elements.

About EIC Books

The Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry (EIC) has proved to be one of the defining standards in inorganic chemistry, and most chemistry libraries around the world have access either to the first of second print editon, or to the online version. Many readers, however, prefer to have more concise thematic volumes, targeted to their specific area of interest. This feedback from EIC readers has encouraged the Editors to plan a series of EIC Books, focusing on topics of current interest. They will appear on a regular basis, and will feature leading scholars in their fields. Like the Encyclopedia, EIC Books aims to provide both the starting research student and the confirmed research worker with a critical distillation of the leading concepts in inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry, and provide a structured entry into the fields covered.

This volume is also available as part of Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, 5 Volume Set.

This set combines all volumes published as EIC Books from 2007 to 2010, representing areas of key developments in the field of inorganic chemistry published in the Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. Find out more.

  

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Contents

CONCLUSIONS
RELATED ARTICLES
Jerzy W Mietelski
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 6 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 7 REMEDIATION 8 CONCLUSIONS
INTRODUCTION
OCCURRENCE
CHEMISTRY SPECIATION AND MOBILITY
BIOLOGICAL UPTAKE

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
SPECIATION
POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 8 REMEDIATION
REMEDIATION
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
CONCLUSIONS
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
RELATED ARTICLES
REFERENCES
OCCURRENCE
CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION
TECHNI UES 7 MITIGATION
CONCLUSIONS
RELATED ARTICLES
REFERENCES
Phosphorus Kibong Kim and David G Churchill 1 SUMMARY 2 INTRODUCTION
ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE AND OCCURRENCE
CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION 5 GEOLOGY
BIOLOGY
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION SEPARATION
MONITORING TECHNI UES 9 REMEDIATION AND MITIGATION 10 CONCLUSION 11 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1O RELATED ARTICLES 11 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 12 REFERENCES
ENVIRONMENTAL OCCURRENCE OF xi
Selenium
George Shaw and Daniel Ashworth 1 SUMMARY
SELENIUM AND RADIOACTIVE SELENIUM
CONCENTRATIONS AND OCCURRENCE
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
ANALYTICAL SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
TECHNI UES 6 POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
RELATED ARTICLES
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
GLOSSARY
Asnor Azrin Sabuti and Che Abd Rahim Mohamed 1 SUMMARY 2 INTRODUCTION
OCCURRENCE
CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 6 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 7 MITIGATION
CONCLUSIONS
RELATED ARTICLES
Uranium
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
REFERENCES
Potassium
PLANT UPTAKE OF
ANALYSIS OF fig
HUMAN EXPOSURE
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
Tech netium Qinhong
SUMMARY
OCCURRENCE 3 CHEMISTRY
ANALYSIS
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 5 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 6 SPECIATION
OCCURRENCE CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION 3 SOILS
POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE
REFERENCES
POTASSIUM4O IN HUMANS AND TOTAL ANNUAL DOSE 8 BIOLOGICAL HALFLIFE 9 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION
REMEDIATION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
OCCURRENCE
CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION
CONCLUSIONS
CHEMISTRY
SPECIATION
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
REFERENCES
Americium and Curium
Anthropogenic Radioactivity
NATURAL MATERIALS
CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION IN WATER AND AIR 5 SEPARATION TECHNI UES 6 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 7...
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 6 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 7 POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE
CONCLUSIONS
CHEMISTRY
ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 5 SPECIATION
TOXICITY 5 ANALYSIS
POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 8 CONCLUSIONS 9 RELATED ARTICLES
REMEDIATION
SEPARATION TECHNI UES 5 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 6 SPECIATION
GEOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR 8 POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1O RELATED ARTICLES 11 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 12 FURTHER READING 13 REFERENCES
HYDROGRAPHY 4 SOURCES 5 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS 6 DISTRIBUTION
TRANSPORT
CONCLUSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1O RELATED ARTICLES 11 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
FURTHER READING 12 REFERENCES
Speciation Brit Salbu 1 SUMMARY
Arctic Ocean
Oceans and Seas
INTRODUCTION
Michio Aoyama 1 SUMMARY
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 4 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 5 SPECIATION 6 POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE 7 SEPAR...
RELATED ARTICLES 13 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 14 REFERENCES Cesium
INTRODUCTION
RADIONUCLIDE SOURCES AND TRANSPORT PATHWAYS
SOURCES OF RADIONUCLIDES
DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS
ARCTIC BIOTA AND ECOSYSTEMS
THE FUTURE CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING ARCTIC
FRACTIONATION TECHNI UES 4 PARTICLE CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 5 CONCLUSIONS 6 RELATED ARTICLES 7 ABBREVIAT...
THE MEDITERRANEAN
SOURCES AND CONTAMINANT ELEMENTS
RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION AND INVENTORIES IN THE WATER COLUMN
Tritium
RADIONUCLIDES IN SEDIMENTS
INTRODUCTION
HOT SPOTS
RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN ORGANISMS
RADIONUCLIDE MASS BALANCE
AMOUNTS
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION FROM FALLOUT 6 HUMAN EXPOSURE 7 CONCLUSIONS
GLOSSARY
RADIONUCLIDE SOURCES AND INPUTS
GEOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF SOLUBLE AND PARTICLEREACTIVE RADIONUCLIDES
RADIONUCLIDE PARTITIONING
GEOCHRONOLOGY OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION
RADIONUCLIDES IN MARINE BIOTA
CONCLUSIONS
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
Global Trends in Cesium Distribution
Plutonium
GLOBAL OCEAN
OCCURRENCE
OCCURRENCE
Btu7 enbuug
FURTHER READING 14 REFERENCES
Civilian Nuclear Accidents
Enrique Lima 1 SUMMARY
Xenon
INTRODUCTION
HISTORICAL MISSION AND THE GENERATION OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES ON THE OAK RIDGE RESERVATION
SUBSURFACE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR RADIOLOGICAL WASTE AT ORNL FORMERLY X10l 5 DISPOSAL METHODS FOR RADIOLOGI...
THE Y12 PLANT
SUBSURFACE PROCESSES CONTROLLING THE MIGRATION OF WASTE ON THE OAK RIDGE RESERVATION
REMEDIATION STRATEGIES ON THE ORR FOR THE CONTAINMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 12 FURTHER READING 13 REFERENCES
SOURCES OF ANTHROPOGENIC RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
GENERAL CHEMISTRY 4 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI UES 5 SPECIATION
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 4 ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNI
CHEMISTRY AND SPECIATION 5 SEPARATION TECHNI
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