Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock

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CRC Press, Jan 1, 2000 - Technology & Engineering - 300 pages
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The safe and economical construction of tunnels, mines, and other subterranean works depends on the correct choice of support systems to ensure that the excavations are stable. These support systems should be matched to the characterstics of the rock mass and the excavation techniques adopted. Establishing the support requirements, designing support systems and installing these correctly are essential elements in safe underground construction.  This is a comprehensive and practical work which also gives access to user-friendly computer programmes which enable the investigation and design of support techniques. Details on how to obtain this software are also included in the book.

 

  

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Contents

11 Introduction
1
121 Exploration and preliminary design
3
123 Early years of mining
4
124 Later years of mining
5
13 Support design
7
21 Introduction
8
22 Factor of safety
9
23 Sensitivity studies
10
925 Estimates of support capacity
106
926 Support interaction example
107
931 Support interaction analysis using PHASES
109
101 Introduction
112
103 The AECL Underground Research Laboratory
114
1031 In situ stresses at 420 level
115
1033 URL Rooms 413 and 405
116
1034 URL Test Tunnel
118

25 Probability of failure
15
26 Problems to which probability cannot be applied
18
31 Introduction
20
33 Structural geological terms
21
34 Structural geological data collection
22
35 Structural geological data presentation
23
36 Geological data analysis
24
41 Introduction
27
421 Terzaghis rock mass classiftcation
28
422 Classifications involving standup time
29
424 Rock Structure Rating RSR
31
43 Geomechanics Classification
33
44 Modifications to RMR for mining
37
46 Using rock mass classification systems
44
47 Estimation of in situ deformation modulus
45
51 Introduction
48
53 Shear strength of rough surfaces
49
531 Field estimates of JRC
51
532 Field estimates of JCS
52
54 Shear strength of filled discontinuities
53
56 Instantaneous cohesion and friction
54
61 Introduction
57
63 Support to control wedge failure
61
632 Shoterete support for wedges
63
64 Consideration of excavation sequence
64
65 Application of probability theory
65
71 Introduction
66
721 The World Stress Map
67
722 Developing a stress measuring programme
72
73 Analysis of induced stresses
73
731 Numerical methods of stress analysis
75
732 Twodimensional and threedimensional models
80
733 Stress analysis using the program PHASES
81
81 Introduction
84
83 Strength of intact rock
85
84 The strength of jointed rock masses
89
85 Use of rock mass classifications for estimating GSI
92
86 When to use the HoekBrown failure criterion
97
91 Introduction
99
921 Definition of failure criterion
101
923 Deformation of an unsupported tunnel
102
924 Deformation characteristics of support
104
104 Example from El Teniente Mine Chile
119
105 South African experience
120
106 Implications for support design
124
1062 Shotcrete
125
111 Introduction
127
113 Permanent mining excavations
131
114 Drawpoints and orepasses
132
115 Small openings in blocky rock
136
116 Small openings in heavily jointed rock
138
117 Presupport of openings
142
1171 Cut and fill stope support
143
1172 Prereinforcement of permanent openings
146
1173 Reinforcement of nonentry stapes
149
121 Introduction
152
1222 Resin anchored rockbolts
156
1231 Grouted dowels
158
1232 Friction dowels or Split Set stabilisers
159
1233 Swellexdowels
160
124 Loaddeformation characteristics
161
131 Introduction
165
133 Cablebolt bond strength
167
134 Grouts and grouting
168
135 Cablebolt installation
171
136 Modified cablebolts
174
141 Introduction
176
1422 The shape factor 5
180
143 Cablebolt design
181
144 Discussion of the method
182
1451 Structural geology
183
1453 Preliminary stope design
184
151 Introduction
190
1522 Wet mix shotcrete
191
1523 Steel fibre reinforced micro silica shotcrete
192
1524 Mesh reinforced shotcrete
194
153 Shotcrete application
195
154 Design of shotcrete support
198
References
201
Software information
209
Author index
211
Subject index
213
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