Word Meaning and Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague's PTQ

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 31, 1979 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 415 pages
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The most general goal of this book is to propose and illustrate a program of research in word semantics that combines some of the methodology and results in linguistic semantics, primarily that of the generative semantics school, with the rigorously formalized syntactic and semantic framework for the analysis of natural languages developed by Richard Montague and his associates, a framework in which truth and denotation with respect to a model are taken as the fundamental semantic notions. I hope to show, both from the linguist's and the philosopher's point of view, not only why this synthesis can be undertaken but also why it will be useful to pursue it. On the one hand, the linguists' decompositions of word meanings into more primitive parts are by themselves inherently incomplete, in that they deal only in distinctions in meaning without providing an account of what mean ings really are. Not only can these analyses be made complete by a model theoretic semantics, but also such an account of these analyses renders them more exact and more readily testable than they could ever be otherwise.
  

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Contents

MONTAGUES GENERAL THEORY OF LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTIC THEORIES OF SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS
1
12 Syntax in the UG Theory and in Linguistic Theories
3
122 Montagues Use of the Ambiguation Relation R
4
123 Other Ways of Construing the Ambiguating Relation R
6
124 The Relation R as Transformational Component
7
125 R and the Potential Vacuity of the Compositionality Thesis
8
126 TradeOffs between R and the Syntactic Operations
9
127 Transformations as Independent Syntactic Rules
11
384 Accomplishments with EventObjects
186
Notes
187
LEXICAL DECOMPOSITION IN MONTAGUE GRAMMAR
193
Lambda Abstraction vs Predicate Raising
200
43 Morphologically Derived Causatives and Inchoatives
206
44 Prepositional Phrase Accomplishments
207
45 Accomplishments with Two Prepositional
213
46 Prepositional Phrase Adjuncts vs Prepositional Phrase Complements
216

13 Semantics in UG
13
132 KatzEarly Theory as an Instance of the General Theory of Meanings
15
133 The Theory of Reference in UG
17
134 Generative Semantics as an Instance of UG
18
14 Interpretation by Means of Translation
21
142 Classical GS and UpsideDown GS
22
143 Directionality
24
15 Preliminaries to the Analysis of Word Meaning
27
152 Is a Level of Semantic Representation Necessary?
29
153 Lexical Decompositions and the Description of Entailments
31
154 Decomposition and Structuralism
32
155 Possible Word Meanings in Natural Language
33
Notes
36
THE SEMANTICS OF ASPECTUAL CLASSES OF VERBS IN ENGLISH
37
21 The Development of Decomposition Analysis in Generative Semantics
38
212 Causative and Inchoatives in Lakoffs Dissertation
40
213 McCawley s PostTransformational Lexical Insertion
43
214 Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Evidence for Decomposition
45
215 The Place of Lexical Insertion Transformations in a GS Derivation
47
22 The AristotleRyleKennyVendler Verb Classification
51
221 The Development of the Verb Classification
52
222 States and Activities
55
223 Activities and Accomplishments
56
224 Achievements
58
225 Lexical Ambiguity
60
226 The Problem of Indefinite Plurals and Mass Nouns
62
227 Examples of the Four Vendler Categories in Syntactic and Semantic Subcategories
65
23 An Aspect Calculus
71
232 Statives von Wrights Logic of Change and BECOME
73
233 A Semantic Solution to the Problem of Indefinites and Mass Nouns
78
234 Carlsons Treatment of Bare Plurals
83
235 DegreeAchievements
88
236 Accomplishments and CAUSE
91
237 CAUSE and Lewis Analysis of Causation
99
238 DO Agency and Activity Verbs
110
239 The Semantics of DO
117
2310 DO in Accomplishments
120
2311 Summary of the Aspect Calculus
122
24 The Aspect Calculus as Restricting Possible Word Meanings
125
Notes
129
INTERVAL SEMANTICS AND THE PROGRESSIVE TENSE
133
32 Truth Conditions Relative to Intervals not Moments
138
33 Revised Truth Conditions for BECOME
139
34 Truth Conditions for the Progressive
145
35 Motivating the Progressive Analysis Independently of Accomplishment Sentences
150
37 Extending the Analysis to the Futurate Progressive
154
38 Another Look at the Vendler Classification in an IntervalBased Semantics
163
382 Stative Verbs in the Progressive Tense
173
383 A Revised Verb Classification
180
47 Factitive Constructions
219
48 Periphrastic Causatives
225
49 ByPhrases in Accomplishment Sentences
227
410 Causative Constructions in Other Languages
229
Notes
232
LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE FOR THE TWO STRATEGIES OF LEXICAL DECOMPOSITION
235
52 Arguments that Familiar Transformations Also Apply PreLexically
238
53 Pronominalization of Parts of Lexical Items
240
54 Scope Ambiguities with Almost
241
HaveDeletion Cases
244
Accomplishment Cases
250
57 Arguments from RE and Reversative UN
256
58 Accommodating the Adverb Scope Data in a PTQ Grammar
260
582 Treating the Adverb as Ambiguous
264
583 Accommodating the HaveDeletion Cases
269
59 Overpredictions of the Generative Semantics Hypothesis
271
592 Adverb Raising Operator Raising
275
594 Quantifier Lowering and Carlsons Analysis of Bare Plurals
280
510 Concluding Evaluation
282
Notes
285
THE SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS OF WORD FORMATION LEXICAL RULES
294
61 Montagues Program and Lexical Rules
296
62 A Lexical Component For a Montague Grammar
298
63 Lexical Rules and Morphology
301
64 Lexical Rules and Syntax
305
65 Examples of Lexical Rules
307
66 Problems for Research in the Pragmatics and in the Semantics of Word Formation
309
Notes
319
THE SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS OF TENSE AND TIME ADVERBIALS IN ENGLISH AN ENGLISH FRAGMENT
322
71 The Syncategorematic Nature of TenseTime Adverbial Interaction
323
72 Rules for Main Tense Adverbials
325
For an Hour and In an Hour
332
74 The Syntactic Structure of the Auxiliary
336
75 The Present Perfect
339
76 Negation
348
77 An English Fragment
350
771 Basic ModelTheoretic Definitions
351
772 The Syntax and Interpretation of the Translation Language
352
773 The Syntax and Translation of English
354
774 Lexical Rules
360
775 Lexicon
361
776 Examples
368
Notes
371
INTENSIONS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL REALITY
375
Notes
394
References
396
Index
409
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