Thermosetting Polymer-matrix Composites for Structural Repair Applications
ProQuest, 2007 - 190 pages
Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporation of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.
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DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF CARBONEPOXY
Table 21 Tg vs frequency and heating rate
CREEP BEHAVIOR OF CARBON FIBEREPOXY MATRIX
Table 31 Activation energies with R2 values
THERMAL AND MECHANICAL EVALUATION OF CYANATE
DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF FUMED
Table 51 Interphase thickness estimation from damping behavior for 12 and 40 nm silica
THERMAL EXPANSION OF FUMED SILICACYANATE ESTER
Table 61 Estimated interphase thickness and volume fractions using Shis model
RHEOLOGY AND CURING KINETICS OF FUMED
Table 71 Shear thinning index STI values for 12 and 40 nm BECysilica suspensions
THERMAL EXPANSION OF CARBONEPOXY COMPOSITES
12 nm fumed 12 nm particles 40 nm fumed 40 nm silica activation energy adhesive AEROSIL agglomerates BECy monomer bisphenol E cyanate C/min carbon fiber carbon/epoxy composites catalyst composite materials constant activation energy creep compliance crosslinked curing kinetics cyanate ester matrix cyanate ester monomer Cyanate Ester Resins decrease delta peak differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis effect epoxy experimental filler frequency fumed silica nanocomposites fumed silica particles fumed silica/cyanate ester glass transition relaxation glass transition temperature heating rate high-temperature increase interphase Kessler loading loss modulus low viscosity master curves mechanical properties nm fumed silica Pa·s pipe repair polymerization post cure temperature predictions prepolymer reinforcement repair system rheological rheological properties room temperature rule of mixtures samples shear rate shear thinning shift factors showed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites storage modulus stress surface area Tg’s thermal expansion thermosetting thermosetting polymers thixotropy viscoelastic viscosity volume fraction