Toward a Global Science: Mining Civilizational Knowledge

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Indiana University Press, 1998 - Business & Economics - 314 pages
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Asian science such as mathematics, Chinese printing, gunpowder and the compass, all contributed to the development of European science. During the last few centuries, however, scientific contributions with Asian roots have diminished and been marginalized and deligitimised. Yet the center of the world economy today is shifting to Asia with shifts in science and technology bound to follow. Toward a Global Science is driven by the proposition that pre-Renaissance acquisition of Asian knowledge did not exhaust Asian civilizationOtilde;s potential contribution. There are many useful elements to modern science still lying hidden in Asian civilizational stores waiting to be Ograve;mined.Oacute; The author gives details of recent contributions from South Asian medicine, mathematics, and psychology and explores how South Asian inputs can be useful in navigating the philosophical and ethical problems raised by two dominant technologies of the future, namely biotechnology and information technology. As an illustrative example, it describes how a fruitful marriage of one technologyNtilde;virtual realityNtilde;with South Asian philosophy can enliven both the technology as well as philosophy. It also examines how Asian positions could be used to feed some key contemporary philosophical discussions on science. Using a model of the civilizational construction of science, the book views science without Eurocentric blinders. It documents how science was built initially by transfers from non-European civilizations and why the given historiography of science has to be rethought. Throughout the book the author gives examples of Ograve;parallels and antecedentsOacute; between East and West in science and estimates the potential reservoir of Asian knowledge in each field. The book also deals with the many knotty problems in recovering science from past traditions. The author distinguishes between his secular efforts from religious and other attempts that claim the equivalence of all knowledge systems.
  

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Contents

ONE INTRODUCTION SECTION
1
VIEWING SCIENCE WITHOUT EUROCENTRIC BLINKERS
9
TWO THE TRAJECTORIES OF CIVILIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE
11
Enlarging the SocialKnowledge Field
13
Starting Points of Science
14
The Sociological Explanations of Western Science
16
Sciences Cognitive Elements
21
General Approaches to Mining
23
Extracting Hidden Mathematical Knowledge
147
EIGHT A SEARCH FOR NEW PSYCHOLOGIES
150
Meditation on the Electronic Rack
152
Mindfulness
155
Imagery Techniques
160
Behavior Change in General
161
Stress Treatment Anxiety Panic and Phobias
162
The Biology of the Internal Sciences
165

WHERE THE EAST AND THE WEST DID MEET 25 Classical Crossflows
25
The Arab Connection
31
The Voyages of Discovery and After
33
FOUR TRANSFORMATIONS 44 Key Turning Points in Science
44
The Search for Valid Knowledge Reason and Blind Faith
55
The Scientific Revolution and Social Life
56
On Eurocentric Blinkers and Contrary Evidence
61
SECTION 2
63
COMING INTO ITS
65
Contemporary Uses of Indigenous Knowledge
71
AYURVEDA
77
Ayurveda Methodology
78
Knowledge Acquisition Techniques
81
Transfers
85
Current Research on Legitimizing
95
Estimating the Reservoir
104
Limits and Cautions
113
SEVEN MATHEMATICS
116
The Greek the Indian South Asian and the Chinese
119
What the Arabs Transmitted to the Modern
123
PostTransmission Modern European Developments and Untransmitted South Asian Parallels
125
PostTransmission Modern Western Developments and PostTransmission South Asian Parallels
136
Contemporary Searches for the Modern in South Asian Traditions
139
Legitimization of Practice
166
Spread and Popular Acceptance
169
Comparisons of Eastern and Western Psychologies
170
Encroaching on the Mainstream
175
SECTION 3
179
NINE TRAVERSING FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH SOME PAST CONCEPTS
181
Merged Information
188
Bioethics of Transplants Reproductive Technology Implants and Prosthetics
191
Streams of Information in Buddhism
193
PHILOSOPHY ON THE NINTENDO 201 Virtual Reality and the New Computer Interface
201
Philosophy in Virtual Reality
204
Reality Questions in South Asian Philosophy
207
Knowledge of Reality in South Asian Systems
212
Virtual Reality and South Asian Philosophy
213
EXPLOITING PHILOSOPHY FOR SCIENCE
219
Developments in Logic and Causality
223
Systems Thinking
228
Evolutionary Processes
232
Cognitive Science Artificial Intelligence
240
TWELVE TOWARD A NEW MILLENNIUM 247 The Transdisciplinary Construction of Science
247
Notes
259
Index
301
Copyright

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About the author (1998)

Goonatilake is a Fellow of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a Senior Consultant for the United Nations on science and technology.

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