The Botanical Text-book: An Introduction to Scientific Botany, Both Structural and Systematic... (Google eBook)

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Putnam, 1853 - Botany - 528 pages
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Page 337 - raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society from seeds taken from the stomach of a man, whose skeleton was found thirty feet below the surface of the earth, at the bottom of a barrow which was opened near Dorchester. He had been buried with some coins of the Emperor Hadrian ; and it is therefore probable that the seeds were sixteen or seventeen hundred years old.
Page 237 - When, therefore, the floral organs are called modified or metamorphosed leaves, it is not to be supposed that a petal has ever actually been a green leaf, and has subsequently assumed a more delicate texture and hue, or that stamens and pistils have previously existed in the state of foliage...
Page 444 - Distinguished generally by the anthers opening by a pore or small hole at the top of each cell, and from all the other orders with a monopetalous corolla, except the two foregoing, by having the stamens free from the corolla, as many or twice as many as its lobes. But the petals are sometimes entirely separate, especially in the third and fourth sub-families. Fruit several-celled. Style one. This large order comprises four very distinct sub-families, viz- : 413.
Page 343 - ... organ, and from his description it is evident that he confounded the two kinds since discovered, regarding them as different stages of one structure. The announcement of this discovery seemed to destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, not only in the ferns but in the other Cryptogams, since it was argued that the existence of these cellular organs, producing moving spiral filaments, the so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, proved that they were not to be regarded...
Page 190 - The residue left by the combustion is commonly composed of salts alkaline chlorides, with bases of potash and soda, earthy and metallic phosphates, caustic or carbonated lime and magnesia, silica, and oxides of iron and of manganese. Several other substances are also met with there, but in quantities so small that they may be neglected.
Page 114 - Structure. In the second case the new woody matter is intermingled with the old, or deposited towards the centre, which becomes more and more occupied with the woody threads as the stem grows older ; and increase in diameter, so far as it depends on the formation of new wood, generally takes place by the gradual distention of the whole, the new wood pushing the old outwards. Accordingly, these stems are said to exhibit the ENDOGENOUS structure or growth ; and such plants are called ENDOGENOUS PLANTS,...
Page 378 - DE CANDOLLE) pursue the opposite course, beginning with the most perfect flowering plants, and concluding with the lowest grade of flowerless plants. The first mode possesses the advantage of ascending by successive steps from the simplest to the most complex structure ; the second, that of passing from the most complete and best understood to the most reduced and least known forms; or, in other words, from the easiest to the most difficult ; and is therefore the best plan for the student...
Page 343 - ... cellular Marchantia-like frond. The globular cell produces in its interior a number of minute vesicles, in each of which is developed a spiral filament, coiled up in the interior. At a certain epoch the globular cell bursts and discharges the vesicles, and the spiral filaments moving within the vesicles at length make their way out of them and swim about in the water, displaying a spiral or heliacal form, and consisting of a delicate filament with a thickened clavate extremity : this, the so-called...
Page 177 - ... bundles ; or the increased size of the coming leaf-bud will snap them ; or, if these causes are not in operation, a gust of wind, a heavy shower, or even the simple weight of the lamina, will be enough to disrupt the small connections and send the suicidal member to its grave. Such is the history of the fall of the leaf. We have found that it is not an accidental...
Page 26 - As they become older, the walls often lose most of their transparency, and even acquire peculiar colors, as in the heart-wood of various trees. 23. The cells vary greatly in size, not only in different plants, but in different parts of the same plant. The largest are found in aquatics, and in such plants as the Gourd, where some of them are as much as one thirtieth of an inch in diameter. Their ordinary diameter in vegetable tissue is between and T-'oij '

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