Malaria Control During Mass Population Movements and Natural Disasters

Front Cover

Admittedly, the world and the nature of forced migration have changed a great deal over the last two decades. The relevance of data accumulated during that time period can now be called into question. The roundtable and the Program on Forced Migration at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University have commissioned a series of epidemiological reviews on priority public health problems for forced migrants that will update the state of knowledge. Malaria Control During Mass Population Movements and Natural Disasters -- the first in the series, provides a basic overview of the state of knowledge of epidemiology of malaria and public health interventions and practices for controlling the disease in situations involving forced migration and conflict.

  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
Why Malaria Control in Emergency Situations?
3
Recommendations
6
MALARIA AND MOBILITY A BRIEF HISTORY AND OVERVIEW
8
Speed Duration and Cause of Mass Population Movements
9
Political and Economic Causes of Population Movement
10
Environmental and Natural Disasters
14
MalariaRelated Characteristics of Mass Population Movements
16
Preventive Use of Antimalarial Drugs
81
InsecticideTreated Bed Nets
84
Other Personal Protection Measures
87
Vector Control Using Insecticides
88
ITNs or Residual Spraying in Refugee Settings?
89
Environmental and Biological Vector Control
91
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN MALARIA CONTROL AND PREVENTION
93
Definitions of Vulnerability
94

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA
24
Mechanisms of Infection and Transmission
25
Malaria Vectors and Vector Behavior
27
Vector Life Cycle
29
Epidemiology of Clinical Malaria
30
Malaria During Pregnancy
32
Antimalarial Drug Resistance
33
Vector Control
46
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTSDESIGN OF AN OPTIMAL MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAM
52
PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
53
Practical Considerations for Surveillance Systems
54
Recommendations
56
CURATIVE SERVICES MALARIA THERAPY AND CASE MANAGEMENT
57
Diagnosis of Malaria
58
Treatment of Malaria
66
Treatment of Malaria During Pregnancy
74
Diagnosis and Treatment of MalariaAssociated Anemia
75
Recommendations
78
PREVENTIVE INTERVENTIONS
80
Behaviors and Risks
95
Recommendations
101
SPECIAL STUDIES AND OPERATIONAL RESEARCH
103
Example of Priority Areas for Research
106
Recommendations
108
PROPHYLAXIS AND PERSONAL PROTECTION FOR RELIEF WORKERS
109
Recommendations
111
RETURN REPATRIATION OR RESETTLEMENT OF DISPLACED POPULATIONS
113
Recommendations
115
IMPROVING MALARIA CONTROL IN COMPLEX EMERGENCIES
117
Adaptation of the Public Nutrition Approach to Malaria Control
118
Recommendations
119
REFERENCES
120
DESCRIPTION OF ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS
145
METHODOLOGY FOR EFFICACY ASSESSMENT OF IN VIVO MALARIA THERAPY
151
ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT REGIMENS FOR SEVERE MALARIA
155
MALARIA RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL RESOURCES
157
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
162
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